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Array of Critiques Against Buddhism

Bulssi Japbyeon 佛氏雜辨

By Jeong Dojeon

Translated from the Hanmun Text

By Charles Muller


Table of Contents

1. Critique of the Buddhist Doctrine of Transmigration 佛氏輪迴之辨   [SBJ 1.75c]
2. Critique of the Buddhist Notion of Karma 佛氏因果之辨
3. Critique of the Buddhist Theory of Mind and Nature 佛氏心性之辨  
4.  Critique of the Buddhists' Conflation of Function and Nature  佛氏作用是性之辨 [78d]
5. Critique of the Buddhist Notion of the Mind and its Functions 佛氏心跡之辨 [79b]
6. Critique of the Buddhists' Obscuration of [Transcendent] Principles and Concrete Entities  佛氏昧於道器之辨 [79d]
7. Critique of the Buddhists' Abandonment of the Basic Human Relationships 佛 氏毀棄人倫之辨 [80b]
8. Critique of the Buddhist Notion of Compassion 佛氏慈悲之辨 [80c]
9. Critique of the Buddhist Notion of Real and Expedient  佛氏眞假之辨
10. Critique of the Buddhist Notion of Hells 佛氏地獄之辨 [82a]
11. Criticism of the Buddhist Notion of Calamity and Fortune 佛氏禍福之辨 [82b]
12. Critique of the Buddhists' Begging for Food 佛氏乞食之辨 [82c]
13. Critique of the Buddhists' Seon Teachings 佛氏禪教之辨 [83c]
14. Critique of the Samenesses and Differences of Confucianism and Buddhism 儒釋同 異之辨65 [84a]
15. On the Entry of the Buddhadharma into China  佛法入中國[ Interlinear Note:按此以下至佛甚謹、年代尤促引用眞氏大學行義說 ] [85c]
16. Serve the Buddha and Reap Misfortune 事佛得禍 [86a]
17. Abandoning the Heavenly Way and Chatting about Buddhahood 舍天道而談佛果 [87a]
18. Serving the Buddha Assiduously, the Length of Reign Considerably Shortens 事佛甚謹 年代尤促 [87d]
19. Critique to Expose Heterodox Teachings 闢異端之辨 [88b]

1. Critique of the Buddhist Doctrine of Transmigration 佛氏輪迴之辨   [SBJ 1.75c]

人物之生生而無竆乃天地之化、 運行而不已 者也。原夫太極有動靜而陰陽生。陰陽有變合而五行具於是。無極太極之眞、陰 陽五行之精、妙合而凝、人物生生焉。其已生者、徃而過。未生者來而續、其間 不容一息之停也。佛之言曰人死、精神不滅、隨復受形。於是輪迴之說興焉。

The unending production and reproduction of human beings, along with the transformations of heaven and earth, operate continually without break. Originally the great polarity has motion and stillness, which generates yin and yang. Yin and yang undergo changes and recombination, and within this, the five phases are contained. The reality of the non-polarity and great polarity, and the germinative essence of yin/yang and the five phases mysteriously combine and congeal, and human beings are produced and reproduced. That which has once been born, goes away. That which is not yet born comes forth and continues, without a moment's interruption. The Buddha says that when people die their spirit is not annihilated, and they subsequently take on [new] form. The theory of transmigration starts with this.1

易曰、「原始反終故知生死」又曰 「精氣爲物 游魂爲變」 先儒解之曰、天地之化、雖 生生不竆、然而聚必有散、有生必有死。能原其始而知其聚之生、則必知其後之 必散而死。能知其生也、 得於氣化之自然。初無精神寄寓於太虛之中、則知其 死也、與氣而倶散無復更有形象。尚畱於冥漠之内。

The Yijing says: "[The sage] traces things to their beginning, and follows them to their end; thus he understands birth and death. [The union of] essence and breath form things, and the wandering away of the soul produces the change [of their constitution]." 2 An earlier scholar explained it by saying that even though the changes of heaven and earth are produced again and again without cease, what is gathered must [eventually] be scattered, and where there is birth, there must be death. If you are able to trace back to the origin and know the birth-taking that is gathering, they you will also necessarily know that subsequently there must be scattering and death. If you are able to know the way of taking birth, then you gain [understanding of] the natural course of the changes in pneuma. Since there are from the start no spirits hanging out in the great void, you can know that in the death [of beings] they are separated from their vital force, and there is no subsequent taking on of form. How could there be such a thing as abiding in a state of limbo? 3

又曰、精氣爲物、游魂爲變」天地陰陽之氣交 合便成人物。到得魂氣歸于天、 體魄歸于地。便是變了。精氣爲物、是合精與氣 而成物。精魄而氣魂也。游魂爲變。變則是魂魄相離。游散而變 變非變化之變。 旣是變、則堅者腐、 存者兦、更無物也。天地間如烘爐。雖生物、皆銷鑠已盡。 安有已散者復合、而已徃者復來乎。

Again [the commentator] says: "[The union of] germinative essence and vital force forms things, and the wandering away of the soul produces the change [of their constitution]," [which means that] the vital forces of heaven-and-earth and yin-yang combine and directly bring forth human beings. Having completed this, the vital force of the hun soul returns to heaven, and the bodily po soul returns to earth.4 Then these are once again fully transformed. As for the germinative essence and the vital force becoming beings, this means that the germinative essence and vital force combine to produce beings. The germinative essence is po, and the vital force is hun. [When the classics say] "the wandering away of the soul produces the change [of their constitution]," "transformation" here means that the hun and po souls separate from each other. It is a transformation of wandering away and dispersal. This "transformation" is not the kind of changing transformation [taught in Buddhism]. Once this kind of transformation occurs, then that which is solid decomposes, and that which exists, disappears, never to return as a living being. The space between heaven and earth is like an oven. Even though there are living things, they are all eventually burnt away. How can you possibly say that that which has been dispersed is again joined, and that which has gone away can return?

今且 驗之吾身、一呼一吸之間。氣一出焉、 謂之一息。其呼而出者、非吸而入之也。然則人之氣息亦生生不竆。而徃者過、 來者續之理可見也。外而驗之於物、凡草木自根而幹而枝而葉而華實、一氣通貫。 當春夏時、其氣滋至而華葉暢茂。至秋冬其氣收斂而華葉衰落。至明年春夏又復 暢茂。非已落之葉、返本歸源而復生也。

We can also test this concept in the case of our own bodies, in the space of a single inhalation and exhalation. When air goes out, we call it "one breath." But that which goes out in one exhalation is not what is taken in with the next inhalation. In this way then, the respiration of people is continually produced without end. The principle of the departing of that which goes forth, and the continuation of that which comes in can be seen in this. We can also test this on other living things in the world. In all kinds of vegetation, a single vital force penetrates from the roots through the trunk, the branches, the leaves, flowers and fruits. During the spring and summer, this vital force peaks in its activity, and flowers and leaves are abundant. Reaching fall and winter, the vital force contracts, and the flowers and leaves fall away. When the spring and summer of the next year arrive, they again grow apace. But it is not the case that the fallen leaves return to their roots — back to their origin to be reborn.

又井中之水朝朝而汲之爨飮食者、火煑而盡之。 濯衣服者、日曝[actually日*曓=]而乾之、泯然無跡。井中之泉、源源而出、無 有竆盡。非已汲之水返其故處而復生也。且 百穀之生也。春而種十石、秋而收百石。以至千萬其利倍蓰、是百穀亦生生也。

When we draw water from a well each morning to boil for cooking and drinking, it is eventually boiled away. When we wash our clothes and put them out to dry in the sun, the water disappears completely without a trace. The water in the well is drawn out continuously, but it never runs out. Yet it is not the case that that the water returns to its original place and is reborn.5 There is also the case of the grains that we farm. In the spring we plant ten bushels, and in the fall we gather one hundred bushels. We can keep going like this, multiplying the yield until we reach one hundred thousand [bushels]. So these grains are also produced again and again.

今以佛氏輪迴之說觀之、凡有血氣者、自有定 數來來去去 無復增損。然則天地之造物、反不如農夫之生利也。且血氣之屬不 爲人類。則爲鳥獸魚鼈昆蟲其數有定。此蕃則彼必耗矣。此耗則彼必蕃矣。不應 一時倶蕃、一時倶耗矣。

Now if we look at it from the point of view of the Buddhist theory of transmigration, all animate creatures come and go in fixed numbers—there is never any increase or decrease [in the total]. But if this is the case, then the creation of living in beings by heaven and earth is not like the profitable work of the farmer. Also, these animate creatures do not become human beings. This being the case then the total number of all of the birds, fish and insects is also fixed. That means that if one increases in number, the other must decrease. Or if one decreases in number, the other must increase. It should not be the case that all simultaneously increase, or that all simultaneously decrease.6

自今觀之當盛世、人類蕃庶、當鳥獸魚鼈昆蟲 亦蕃庶。當衰世、人物耗損鳥獸魚鼈昆蟲亦耗損。是人與萬物皆爲天地之氣所生。 故氣盛則一時蕃庶。 氣衰則一時耗損明矣。予憤佛氏輪迴之說惑世尤甚。 幽而質諸天地之化、明而驗諸人物之生 得 其說如是此。與我同志者、幸共鑑焉。

From the present point of view [however], during times of prosperity, the population of human beings increases, and at the same time, the population of the birds, beast, sea-creatures and insects also increases. During a period of decline, the population of human beings decreases, as does the population of the birds, beasts, sea-creatures, and insects. This is because human beings and the myriad things are all born from the vital force of heaven and earth. Therefore, when the vital force is waxing, then [the number of all things] increases simultaneously. When the vital force is on the wane, [the number of all things] decreases simultaneously. I have had it with the Buddhist's teaching of transmigration, which is nothing but a hideous deception to the people of the world. If we deeply fathom all the transformations of heaven and earth, and clearly examine the production of human beings, then we cannot but understand it as I have explained here. For those who share my views, it would be best to reflect on this together.


2. Critique of the Buddhist Notion of Karma 佛氏因果之辨

[76d]

或曰、吾子辨佛氏輪迴之說至矣。子言人物皆 得陰陽五行之氣以生。今夫人則有智愚贒不肖貧富貴賤壽夭之不同。物則有爲人 所逐畜役勞苦、至死而不辤者。有未免網羅釣弋之害、大小強弱之自相食者。天 之生物、一賦一與。何其偏而不均如是耶。以此而言、釋子所謂生時所作善惡皆 有報應者、不其然乎。且生時所作善惡、是 之謂因。 佗日報應、是之謂果。此其說不亦有所據歟。

Some say "Your criticism of the Buddhist notion of transmigration is extreme. You claim that human beings and the [myriad] creatures are born through the reception of the vital forces of yin/yang and the five phases." Well, in people there are the inequalities of wise and foolish, capable and incapable, poor and rich, noble and low-class, longevity and short life. In the case of the animals, there are those that are captured, raised as livestock, and made to suffer in labor, without remittance until their death. There are some that cannot escape the angler's and fowler's nets, the fisherman's hook or the hunter's arrow. The large and small, strong and weak eat, or are eaten by each other. In heaven's creation of the creatures, each receives its own lot. How can there be such a situation of inequality as this? With this in mind, are not the Buddha's teachings of the attainment of birth as a result of the good and evil actions of prior lifetimes on the mark? Those good and evil activities that one carries out in this life are called "causes." The rewards that appear at a later date, these are called the "fruits." 7 Doesn't this explanation seem reasonable?

曰、予於上論人物生生之理悉矣。知此則輪迴之說自辨矣。輪迴 之說辨則因果之說不辨而自明矣、然子旣有問焉。予敢不推本而重言之。夫所謂陰陽五 行者、交運迭行參差不齊。故其氣也、有通塞偏正淸濁厚薄高下長短之異焉。

[I answer by] saying that I have explained the matter in full in the above discussion on the continuous production of humans and things. Once you grasp my point, you cannot but be critical of the theory of transmigration. And even though the critique of the theory of transmigration [is properly grasped] then the [shortcomings of] the theory of karma are self-evident without any special effort at critique—you still ask this question? I take the prerogative of not repeating my explanation from the beginning again. Now, [in the activity of] yin/yang and the five phases, the twists of fate and the alternations in patterns are uneven and unequal. Therefore in their related vital force, there are differences of free flow and congestion, imbalance and balance, purity and pollution, substantiality and insipidity, high and low, long and short.

而人物之生、適當其時、得其正且通者爲人。 得其偏且塞者爲物。人與物之貴賤於此焉分。又在於人、得其淸者智且贒。 得 其濁者愚不肖。 厚者富而薄者貧。高者貴而下者賤。長者壽而短者夭。此大略 也、雖物亦 然。若麒麟龍鳳之爲靈、虎狼 虵虺之爲毒、椿桂芝蘭之爲瑞、烏喙堇荼之爲苦。是皆就於偏塞之中而又有善惡 之不同。

And in the production of humans and animals, if the timing is right, they obtain free flow and balance, becoming a human. If they end up with congestion and imbalance, they become animals. The respective nobility and wretchedness of humans and animals is differentiated in this. Furthermore, while existing as a human, those who attain purity are the wise and the adept. Those who end up being polluted are the foolish and the inadept. Those with thick [in virtue] attain wealth and those [whose virtue] is insipid end up in poverty. The high are ennobled and the low are miserable. The long are long-lived and the short die young. This discussion is greatly abbreviated, yet the case is the same with the things of the natural world. The Qilin, dragons, and phoenix are spiritual, while the tigers, wolves and snakes are poisonous. The camellia, cassia, iris, and epidendrum are auspicious, while the crow, {long-beaked animals? }, poisonous herbs, and cogongrass bring suffering. Although these all lie in the category of the congested and imbalanced, there are still inequalities in relative good and evil.

然皆非有意而爲之。易曰、「乾、道變化各定 性命」。先儒曰、天道無心而普萬物是也。今夫醫卜小數也。卜者定人之禍福、 必推本於五行之衰旺。至曰某人以木爲命。當春而旺、當秋而衰。其象貌靑而長。 其心慈而仁。某人以金爲命。吉於秋而漕[probably=凶]於夏。其象貌白而方。 其心剛而明。曰水、曰火。莫不皆然。而象貌之醜陋 心識之愚暴。 亦皆本於五 行稟賦之偏。

Yet they do not become so by their own will. The Changes say: "Qian: The Way transforms, determining the constitution of each thing." 8 An earlier scholar said: "This indicates that Heaven's Way is distributed to the myriad things without awareness." [The same principle can be seen expressed] in the minor arts of the physicians and fortunetellers. When the fortune tellers determine people's ill and good destinies, they must inevitably trace back to the basis in the rise and fall of the five phases. For example, some people's destinies are determined by the phase of wood. In the spring they will flourish, and in the autumn they will decline. Their appearance tends to be green and tall, and their hearts tend to be warm and compassionate. Other people's destinies are determined by the phase of metal. They do well in the autumn and falter in the summer. Their appearance tends to be whitish and square, their minds are strong and bright. The same sorts of examples can be made from [the phases of] water and fire—there is no place where they do not have application. Also, ugliness in appearance, and coarseness and dullness of mind are also rooted in imbalances in the endowments gotten from the five phases.

醫者診人之疾病、又必推本於五行之相感。乃 曰某之病寒乃腎水之證。某之病溫乃心火之 證之類、是也。其命藥也、以其性之溫涼寒熱。味之酸醎甘苦分屬陰陽五行而劑 之、無不符合。此吾儒之說以人物之生、爲得於陰陽五行之氣者。明有左驗無可 疑矣。

When physicians are diagnosing people's sickness, they also must investigate to the root causes of the mutual influences of the five agents. This can be seen in the fact that sicknesses related to cold will be related to the water-based kidneys, and the sicknesses of heat will be related to the fire-based heart.9 The prescriptions given for treatment are adapted to the various natures of warm and cool, cold and hot, assigning tastes of salty and sour, sweet and bitter, which are in turn, categories related to the five agents. In this, there are no [remedies] that are not perfectly matched [to the disease and personal constitution]. This is what our Confucian teachers mean when they say that the production of people and things occurs based on the attainment of the vital forces through yin/yang and the five agents. This is supported by direct testimony that is beyond reproach.

信如佛氏之說、則人之禍福疾病無與於陰陽五 行 而皆出於因果之報應。何無一人、捨吾儒所謂陰陽五行、而以佛氏所說因果 報應、定人禍福診人疾病歟。其說荒唐謬誤、無足取信如此。子尚惑其說歟。

If you follow the explanations of the Buddhists, then fortune and misfortune, and sickness are unrelated to yin/yang and the five agents. Instead, all are manifested as the karmic retribution. [If this is so,] why is it that not a single person has abandoned our Confucian yin/yang-five agents paradigm, and adopted the Buddhist theory of karmic results, when it comes to the divination of fortune/misfortune, and the diagnosis of disease? Their theories are wild, empty and error-laden, and not worth being adopted. How can you allow yourself to be deceived by such teachings?!


3. Critique of the Buddhist Theory of Mind and Nature 佛氏心性之辨  

[78a]

心者、人所得於天以生之氣。虛靈不昧以主於 一身者也。性者、人所得於天以生之理。純粹至善、以具於一心者也。葢心有知 有爲、性無知無爲。故曰心能盡性、性不能知檢其心。又曰心綂情性。又曰心者、 神明之舍。性則其所具之理。觀此心性之辨可知矣。

The mind is the pneuma that the human being takes from Heaven at birth. It is spiritually subtle and undarkened10 , and takes its position as lord of a single body. The nature is the principle that the human being takes from Heaven at birth. It is pure and perfectly good—the endowment of a single mind. The mind possesses both awareness and activity, while the nature possesses neither awareness nor activity. Therefore it is said that the mind is able to fathom the nature, but the nature is not able to take stock of the mind. It is also said that the mind encompasses the emotions and the natures. The mind is also said to be the abode of the spiritual luminosity, while the nature is the principle with which it is endowed. Observing this, the distinctions between the mind and nature should be understood!

彼佛氏以心爲性、求其說而不得。乃曰迷之則 心、悟之則性。又曰心性之異名。猶眼目之殊稱。至楞嚴曰圓妙明心明妙圓性[ Interlinear Note:按楞嚴經曰、汝等遺失本妙圓妙明心、寶明妙性。認悟中迷言。心 則從妙起明。圓融照了。如鏡之光、故曰圓明妙心。性則卽明而妙。寂然寂湛、 如鏡之體。故曰寶明妙性。 ]以明與圓分而言之。

The Buddhists take the mind to be the nature. But if you examine their theory thoroughly, it doesn't add up. They furthermore say that delusion is none other than the mind, and that awakening is none other than the nature. They also say that "mind" and "nature" are synonymous, just like the words yan and mu.11 And even the Śūraṃgama-sūtra says: "Complete, marvelous, luminous mind; luminous, marvelous, complete nature." [ Interlinear Note:This is a reference to the passage in the Śūraṃgama-sūtra that says: "You have abandoned the originally marvelous and completely marvelous luminous mind, the jeweled luminous marvelous nature. In the midst of the witnessing of awakening, you speak deludedly." ( (T 945.19.110c24) ) In the case of the mind it is from its marvelousness that the luminosity arises. It is completely interfused, and its illumination is complete. Its illumination is like that of a mirror, and therefore it is called the complete, luminous, marvelous mind. In the case of the nature, then it is simultaneously luminous and marvelous. It is silent and profound, like the essence of the mirror. Therefore it is called "jeweled luminous marvelous nature." ] They are named by discriminating luminosity from completeness.

普照曰、心外無佛 性外無法又以佛與法分而 言之、似略有所見矣。然皆得於想象髣髴之中、而無豁然眞實之見。其說多爲遊 辭而無一定之論; 其情可得矣。吾儒之說曰、盡心知性。 此本心以竆理也。

Bojo [the noted Seon master Jinul] said: "Outside of the mind there is no Buddha" 12 and "outside of the nature there is no dharma." 13 This also explains a distinction in terms of Buddha and dharma, seeming to indicate that there is [a distinction] to be seen. Yet this is all done based on nebulous supposition, rather than on explicit facts. The teachings of the Buddhists have lots of word play, but lack a definitive doctrine, and so their actual position can be understood. Our Confucian teachers say, "exhaust your mind to understand the nature." 14 Here the original mind is used to fathom a profound principle.

佛氏之說曰、觀心見性、心卽性也。是別以一 心見此一心。心安有二乎哉。彼亦自知其說之竆。從而遁之曰、以心觀心如以口 齕口。當以不觀觀之、此何等語歟。

The Buddha's teaching says, "observe the mind and see the nature," 15 and "mind is none other than the nature." 16 " This means that you use a separate one mind to observe this one mind. But how can a person have two minds? From this we can also readily know the impoverishment of their theories. We can sum it up by saying that using one's mind to observe the mind is like using the mouth to eat the mouth. What kind of nonsense is this to say that we will use the unobserving to observe?!

且吾儒曰、方寸之間 虛靈不昧、具衆理應萬事。其曰虛靈不昧者、心也。具衆理者、性也。應萬事者、情也。惟其此心、具衆理。 故於事物之來、應之無不各得其當。所以處事物之當否、而事物皆聽命於我也。

Moreover, when our Confucian teachers say, "within the space of a square inch, [all matters and all creatures have their definite principle]" 17 and "the rarefied spirit is undarkened, [including within it a multitude of principles, responding to myriad circumstances.]" 18 The rarefied spirit which is undarkened is the mind. That which contains a multitude of principles, is the nature. Those things which respond to a myriad circumstances are the sentiments. Now, since this mind is endowed with a multitude of principles, upon the arrival of all affairs and things, there are none that are not responded to appropriately. Therefore affairs and things are treated according to their correctness and incorrectness, and affairs and things follow the lead of the self.

此吾儒之學。内自身心、外而至事物、自源徂 流。一以通貫、如源頭之水流於萬派、無非水也。如持有星之衡、稱量天下之物。 其物之輕重與權衡之銖兩相稱。此所謂元不曾間斷者也。

This is the learning of our Confucian masters. From inside the body and mind, extending out to [all] affairs and things—from the source, flowing out to the branch streams. All are penetrated by one, like the water that comes down from the fountainhead to flow out to a myriad streams—there is no place where it is not water. It is like holding the handle of the Great Dipper, which assesses the worth of all things under heaven. The relative worth of those things is just like the weighing of zhu and liang on a scale. This is what is meant by saying that there has never been a moment of interruption.

佛氏曰、空寂靈知 隨緣不變19[ Interlinear Note:按佛氏以爲眞淨心隨緣是 相、不變是性。如一眞金、隨大小器物等、是隨緣相也。本金不變是性也。一眞淨心隨 善惡染淨等。是隨緣相也。本心不變、性也。 ]無所謂理者具於其中。故於事物 之來、滯者欲絶而去之、達者、欲隨而順之。

The Buddhists say that the spiritual wisdom of emptiness accords to conditions without changing. [ Interlinear Note:The Buddhists take the pure mind's accordance with conditions as "marks" and its changelessness as its "nature." It is like the single element of true gold, the marks of which change according to its usage in larger and smaller vessels, and so forth. This accordance with conditions is called "marks." The fact that the original gold does not change, is called its "nature." The single true and pure mind adapts to good and evil, defilement and purity, and so forth. This accordance is called its "marks." The original changelessness of the mind, is called its "nature." ] There is no principle contained here. Therefore, upon the arrival of events and things, those who can't keep up with them, desire to sever and escape from them. Those who are capable, desire to follow and accord with them.

其絶而去之者、固已非矣。隨而順之者、亦非也。其言曰、隨緣放曠、任性逍遙。聽其 物之自爲而已。無復制其是非而有以處之也。是其心如天上之月。其應也、如千 江之影; 月眞而影妄。其間未嘗連續。如持無星之衡、稱量天下之物、其輕重低 昂。惟物是順而我無以進退稱量之也。故曰、釋氏虛、吾儒實。釋氏二、吾儒一。 釋子間斷、吾儒連續。學者所當明辨也。

Now, cutting off and escaping is definitely unacceptable. Following and according are also unacceptable. What [the Buddhists] are saying is, follow conditions in a state of detachment from the world. Just let things be what they are, according to their nature. Pay attention to into what things develop, and nothing more. Do not repeatedly regulate their correctness and try to manage them. This kind of mind is like the moon in the sky. Its adaptation is like the reflection in a thousand rivers—the moon is real and its reflections are false. Between the two there has never been any connection. It is like using a starless scale to evaluate the worth of the things under heaven, their lightness and heaviness, their highness and lowness. Things can only be accorded with, and the individual has no means to appropriately evaluate them. Therefore I say: Buddhism is void, while Confucianism is substantial; Buddhism has two realities, while Confucianism has one; Buddhism has gaps, while Confucianism is consistent. This is something that learned people should clarify and discern.


4.  Critique of the Buddhists' Conflation of Function and Nature  佛氏作用是性之辨 [78d]

愚按佛氏之說、以作用爲性。龎居士曰、連水搬柴無非妙用 是 也[ Interlinear Note:按龎居士偈曰、日用事無別。唯吾自偶諧。頭頭須取舍。 處處勿張乖。神通幷妙用。運水及搬柴 ]

I submit to you that in the discourse of the Buddhists, functional activity is taken to be nature. For instance, Layman Pang said: "Hauling water and carrying firewood are nothing but marvelous function." [ Interlinear Note:This is from the verse of Layman Pang that says "in daily activities, no discrimination, only oneself merging. Each moment grasping and letting go, at each point, no antagonism. Supernatural power together with marvelous functioning; hauling water and carrying firewood." ]20

葢性者、人所得於天以生之理也。作用者人所 得於天以生之氣也。氣之凝聚者、爲形質、爲神氣。若心之精爽、耳目之聰明、 手之執、足之奔、凡所以知覺運動者皆氣也。

The "nature" [of something] is the principle that one obtains from heaven in order to be born. "Functional activity" is the vital force that one obtains from heaven in order to be born. The congealment of the vital force brings about substantial form and spiritual pneuma. The acuity of the mind, sharpness of the eyes, grasp of the hands, and speed of foot—all kinds of sensation and movement are all [manifestations of] the vital force.

故曰、形旣生矣。神發知矣。人旣有是形氣、卽是理具於形氣 之中在心爲仁義禮智之性、惻隱羞惡辤讓是非之情。在頭容爲直。在目容爲端、在口容 爲止之類。凡所以爲當然之則而不可易者、是理也。劉康公曰、人受天地之中以生所謂 命也。故有動作威儀之則、以定命也。

Thus it is said: "Form is already produced, the spirit generates awareness." 21 People are already possessed of the vital force as shape, and the principle is already endowed in this shaped vital force in the mind as the natures of humaneness, justice, propriety, and wisdom, as well as the feelings of sympathy for the sufferings of others, shame and disgust, courtesy and respect, and right and wrong. It exists in the brain as correctness, exists in the eyes as precision, and exists in the mouth as restraint. All norms that are regarded as proper behavior and which are not to be taken lightly are principle. The prince Liu Kang said: "What human beings receive within heaven and earth in order to be born, is called 'life.' Therefore there are norms of behavior and deportment, to give order to life." 22

其曰、天地之中者、卽理之言也。其曰威儀之 則者、卽理之發於作用者也。朱子亦曰、若 以作用爲性、則人胡亂執刀殺人敢道性歟。且理形而上者氣形而下也。佛氏自以 爲高妙無上而反以形而下者爲說可笑也已。學者須將吾儒所謂威儀之則與佛氏所 謂作用是性者、内以體之於身心、外以驗之於事物。則自當有所得矣。

The phrase "within heaven and earth" refers to principle. The phrase "norms of [behavior and] deportment," is principle manifesting itself in functional activity. Zhuxi also said "if you take functional activity [of something] to be [the same as] its nature, then are not peoples' irresponsible actions such as taking a sword to murder someone, and transgressing the way [also] the nature?" Now, principle is something metaphysical, while vital force is something physical. Is not the Buddhists' taking the highest, sublime, peerless [principle] and reducing it to something physical, indeed ridiculous? Learned persons must take our Confucian norm of deportment and [compare them with] the Buddhist identification of functional activity with the nature, and examine them in one's own mind and body, and test them in external things and events. Then they will naturally understand.


5. Critique of the Buddhist Notion of the Mind and its Functions 佛氏心跡之辨 [79b]

心者、主乎一身之中。而跡者、心之發於應事 接物之上也。故曰、有是心必有是跡。不可判而爲二也。葢四端五典萬事萬物之 理、渾然具於此心之中。其於事物之來、不一其變。而此心之理、隨感而應各有 攸當而不可亂也。

The mind is the master residing in a single body. Traces are externalia that appear as the mind is activated in response to events and contact with things. Therefore it is said that when this mind exists, its traces necessarily exist. They cannot be separated into two. Now the principles of the four beginnings, the five constants of the myriad events and things are integrated and replete within this mind. When these principles are faced with the arrival of events and things, they do not transform to become identical with them. Yet the principles [contained in] this mind receive impressions and respond to each, treating each appropriately, and cannot be confused.

人見孺子匍匐入井便有怵惕惻隱之心。是其心 有仁之性。故其見孺子也、發於外者、便惻然心與跡、果有二乎。曰羞惡、曰辤 讓、曰是非。莫不皆然。次而及於身之所接。見父則思孝焉。見子則思慈焉。至 於事君以忠、使臣以禮、交友以信、是就使之然也。以其心有仁義禮智之性、故 發於外者。

When a person sees a toddler about to stumble into a well, they spontaneously react with sympathy.23 This means that their mind has an altruistic nature. Therefore their seeing of the child, which happens externally, directly results in the mind of sympathy and its traces. How could they be two [separate things]? Whether you are talking about [the basic sense of] shame and disgust [for one's own evil activities], the basic sense of courtesy and respect, [the basic sense of] right and wrong, there are none that do not operate like this.24 Next is the case of the relationships between people. When you see your father you think in a filial way; when you see your children you think with love; so it is with serving your ruler with loyalty, treating your subjects with propriety, and interacting with friends with trust.25 These are all viable examples. Since their minds possess the natures of humaneness, giving due, and propriety, they are manifested externally.

亦如此所謂體用一源、顯微無間者也。彼之學 取其心、不取其跡。乃曰、文殊大聖遊諸酒肆 跡雖非而心則是也。侘如此類者、 甚多。非心跡之判歟。程子曰、佛氏之學於敬以直内則有之矣。義以方外則未之 有也。故滯固者入於枯槁。疏通者、歸於恣 肆、此佛之教。所以隘也、然無義以方外。其直内者、要之亦不是也。王通、儒 者也、亦曰心跡判矣。葢惑於佛氏之說而不知者也。故幷論之。

It is like the saying "essence and function spring from the same source; the manifest and the subtle have no gap between them." 26 The Buddhist's method of study treats the mind, but does not treat its traces [activities]. This can be seen in their saying things like "The bodhisattva Mañjuśrī wanders through the taverns, but these traces are not his mind." 27 Excuses like this for sloppy behavior abound [in the Buddhist teachings]. Is this not a separation of the mind from its activities? Chengzi said: "The study of the Buddhists includes reverence to correct the internal, but does not include due-giving to straighten the external." 28 Therefore those who are stuck in these [incorrect views] wither away. First excelling, then returning to waywardness—this is Buddhism. It contains the means for internal discipline, but lacks justice to straighten the externals. But even in the matter of correcting the internal, they still miss the essential points. Wangtong was a Confucian, and he also proposed the division of the mind from its activities.29 Well, he was deceived by the Buddhist teaching and did not know it. Therefore I devote myself to explaining this.


6. Critique of the Buddhists' Obscuration of [Transcendent] Principles and Concrete Entities  佛氏昧於道器之辨 [79d]

道則理也、形而上者也。器則物也、形而下者 也。葢道之大原出於天 而無物不有、無時不然。卽身心而有身心之道。近而卽 於父子。君臣、夫婦、長幼、朋友。遠而卽於天地萬物。莫不各有其道焉。人在 天地之間、不能一日離物而獨立。是以凡吾所以處事接物者、亦當各盡其道而不 可或有所差謬也。此吾儒之學所以自心而身而人而物、各盡其性而無不通也。

" 'Way' refers to principle, which is metaphysical. 'Concrete entities' are things, and are material." 30 Now, the great fount of the Way issues forth from heaven;31 there is no thing that does not exist, and no time that it is not so. Whereever there are body and mind, there is the Way of body and mind. Close at hand [it is seen in the relationship between] father and son, ruler and minister, husband and wife, elder and younger, and between friends. Further-reaching, it is found in heaven and earth and the myriad things. There are none that do not possess their own Way. The person who abides in the space between heaven and earth is not able to exist independently of things for a single day. Therefore it is universally the case that in each person's treatment of affairs and relationship with things is as well replete with its own Way. It can't be the case that there is variation here. This is the way the discipline of we Confucians goes from mind to body to people to things, each one fulfilling its nature with no place left untouched.

葢道雖不雜於器亦不離於器者也。彼佛氏於道、 雖無所得、以其用心積力之久、髣髴若有見處。 然如管窺天。一向直上去 不能 四通八達。其所見必陷於一偏。 見其道、不雜於器者。則以道與器歧而二之。 乃曰、「凡所有相、皆是虛 妄。若見諸相非相、卽見如來」[ Interlinear Note:按此一段出般若經 言目前無法 觸目皆如 [芻? probably 是] 知如是 卽見如來 ] 必欲擺脫羣有、落於空寂。

Now the Way is not mixed with concrete entities, nor is it distinct from concrete entities. The way of the Buddhists is such that even though [they say] there is nothing to be attained, due to the length of time of accumulating concentration, they give the appearance of having some kind of vantage point. Yet [this perspective] is like peeping at the heavens through a narrow tube. They one-pointedly depart straight upwards, but are not able to [practice their realizations] pervasively throughout the world. That which they perceive cannot but fall into one-sidedness. When you observe their Way, it is not mixed with concrete activity. Thus they take the Way and concrete activity and separate them into two. They say "Wherever there are marks, all are nothing but voidness. If you observe all marks to be no-marks, then you are seeing the Tathāgata." 32 [ Interlinear Note:This passage comes from the Prajñāpāramitā-sūtra, which says that before the eyes there are no phenomena. When all that the eyes touch upon becomes like this, and awareness is like this, then you are seeing the Tathāgata. ] One is expected to seek to disentangle oneself from all existent things, and drop away into oblivion.

見其道不離於器者、則以器爲道。乃曰善惡皆心、萬法唯識。 隨順一切任用無爲 猖狂放恣 無所不爲。[ Interlinear Note:按。善心將生 隨 順一切任用無爲。 惡心將生 猖狂放恣、無所不爲。心之所有識乃爲之惟善惟惡。 非 心無識、非識無心。心識相對善惡生滅。 ]此程子所謂滯固者入於枯槁、疏通者 歸於恣肆者也。然其所謂道者、指心而言、乃反落於形而下者之器而不自知也。惜哉。

When [the Buddhists] see their Way as not distinct from concrete entities, then they take concrete entities to be the Way. Thus they say "Good and evil [phenomena] are all mind. The myriad phenomena are nothing but consciousness." According with all things, going along with their activity without contrivance; acting wildly and arbitrarily, there is nothing that they do not do. [ Interlinear Note:This means that the good mind, up attaining rebirth, follows all the myriad phenomena going along without contrivance; the evil mind that is attains rebirth acts wildly and arbitrarily, and there is nothing that it will not do. The consciousness that the mind possesses, then, is only good or only evil. Without mind there is no consciousness, and without consciousness there is no mind. The mind and consciousness are concomitant, good and evil arise and cease. ] This is what is Chenghao meant when he said "those who are rigid become like dry wood, and those who are unrestrained end up being arbitrary and reckless." 33 Yet when [the Buddhists] talk about their Way, they are referring to the mind. But they end up falling back down into the physical realm of concrete things, without even being aware of it themselves. How regrettable!


7. Critique of the Buddhists' Abandonment of the Basic Human Relationships 佛 氏毀棄人倫之辨 [80b]

明道先生曰、「道之外無物、物之外無道。是 天地之間、無適而非道也。卽父子而父子在所親。卽君臣而君臣在所嚴。以至爲 夫婦爲長幼爲朋友無所爲而非道。所以不可須臾離也。然則毀人倫去四大[ Interlinear Note:按四大受想行識 ]其分於道遠矣。」 又曰、「言爲無不周徧、而實則外於倫理。」先生之辨盡矣。

The teacher Mingdao34 said:

Outside of the Way there are no things; outside of things there is no Way. Thus within heaven and earth, there is nowhere without the Way. It is found in the relations between father and son, and the way of father and son lies in intimacy. It is found in the relation between ruler and minister, and the way of ruler and minister lies in respect for authority. It is the same with the relationship between husband and wife, elder and younger, and friends: [in these relationships] there is no activity that is not the Way. That is why '[the Way] cannot be separated from for a moment.' 35 This being the case, to abandon human relationships and do away with the four elements[ Interlinear Note:The four elements here are feeling, perception, impulse and consciousness. ] is to deviate far from the Way.36

He also said "There is no place where words do not penetrate. Yet when they reach fruition they are outside of moral principles." Is not the analysis of our teacher thorough indeed!


8. Critique of the Buddhist Notion of Compassion 佛氏慈悲之辨 [80c]

天地以生物爲心。 而人得天地生物之心以生。 故人皆有不忍人之心。 此卽所謂仁也。佛雖夷狄、亦人之類耳。安得獨無此心 哉。吾儒所謂惻隱、佛氏所謂慈悲、皆仁之用也。其立言雖同、而其所施之方、 則大相遠矣。

Heaven and earth take living beings as their mind;37 human beings take this mind of the living beings of heaven and earth to be born. Therefore people are uniformly endowed with the mind that cannot bear to watch the suffering of others.38 Even though the Buddha was a foreigner, he was still a human being. So how could he alone lack this mind? What we Confucians call the feeling of sympathy for the suffering of others, the Buddhists call "compassion." Both are functions of humaneness (Kor. in ). Even though these two verbal expressions are basically the same, huge differences can be seen in the way that they are actually carried out into practice.

葢親與我同氣者也。人與我同類者也。物與我 同生者也。故仁心之所施、自親而人而物。如水之流盈於第一坎而後達於第二第 三之坎。其本深故、其及者遠。擧天下之物、無一不在吾仁愛之中。故曰「親親 而仁民、仁民而愛物。」 此儒者之道。所以爲一爲實爲連續也。

My family members and I share the same vital force. Other people and I are of the same species. Other living beings and I share in being alive. Therefore, in the manifest expression of the mind of humaneness, one starts with one's family, then extends to other people, and then to other beings.39 It is like water overflowing from one hole, and then to a second and third hole. The source of humaneness is deep, and its extent is far-reaching. Including all the creatures in heaven and earth, there is not one that does not exist within our heartfelt love. Therefore [Mencius] said: "[The Superior Man] loves his parents intimately and loves people as people. He loves people as people and cares about creatures." 40 This is the Confucian Way. Therefore it is unitary, it is substantial, and it is consistent.

佛氏則不然。其於物也、毒如豺虎、微如蚊虻、 尚欲以其身、餧之而不辤。其於人也、越人有飢者、思欲推食之。秦人有寒者、 思欲推衣。而衣之所謂布施者也。若夫至親如父子、至敬如君臣、必欲絶而去之。 果何意歟。

The Buddhists are different. In their treatment of other living beings, even if the beings are fierce animals like tigers and leopards, or insignificant bugs, like mosquitoes and flies, they shamelessly desire to feed them with their own bodies. In their treatment of people, if a man from Yue41 is hungry, they are concerned about giving their food to him. If a man from Qin is cold, they want to donate their clothing to him. And this offering of clothing is the so-called dāna. But in the case of someone extremely close, like one's father or son, or someone to whom great respect is due, such as the prince or minister, they unfailingly seek to sever the relationship and run away.42 What is the meaning of this!?

且人之所以自重愼者、以有父母妻子、爲之顧 藉也。佛氏以人倫爲假合。子不父其父、臣不君其君。虻[恩]義衰薄。視至親如 路人、視至敬如辯髦。其本源先失。故其及於人物者、如木之無根、水之無源。 易致枯竭。卒無利人濟物之效、而拔劒斬蛇虵。 略無愛惜。

Moreover, the way that people learn to act with care and discretion, is by virtue of their having fathers and mothers, wives and children. This causes them to learn proper values. The Buddhists regard human relationships as provisional combinations. The son does not treat his father as a father, and the minister does not treat his prince as a prince. Human warmth and justice go down the drain. People regard their most intimate family members like passersby on the street, and they treat the most venerable person like a capped boy.43 The original basis has already been lost. Therefore, if they try reach out to other people and beings, it is like a tree without roots—a river without a spring, which easily dries up. In the end there is success neither in bringing benefit to people nor giving aid to living beings, and the sword is drawn to kill the snake.44 They haven't the slightest bit of feeling for them.

地獄之說、極其阿慘酷。反爲少虻[恩] 之人。尚之所謂慈悲者、果安在哉。然而此心之天、終有不可得而昧者。故雖昏 蔽之極、一見父母則孝愛之心油然而生。盍亦反而求之、而乃曰、多生習氣未盡 除故、愛根尚在、執迷不悟。莫此爲甚。佛氏之教所以無義無理而名教所不容者、 此也。

[The Buddhists'] teaching about the hells is extreme in its cruelty, and reflects upon them as people of little feeling. Where is the so-called "compassion" to be seen in this? Nonetheless, in the end the spirituality of this mind cannot be completely darkened. Therefore, even though one may be in the most extreme state of blindness [regarding the principle of human relationships], with just one meeting with one's father and mother, the heart of filial love spontaneously springs forth. [The Buddhists] even trace back to the roots and seek [the basis of love] and then say: "Since the karmic impressions created over many lifetimes are not yet eliminated, the root of love still remains. One is attached to delusion and does not awaken." 45 Is this not extreme!? This is what is meant when we say that the teaching of the Buddhists lacks meaning and lacks principle, and therefore does not really qualify to be called a genuine teaching.


9. Critique of the Buddhist Notion of Real and Expedient  佛氏眞假之辨

[81a]

佛氏以心性爲眞常、以天地萬物假合。其言曰 「一切衆生種種幻化皆生如來圓覺妙心猶如空華及第二月」[ Interlinear Note:按此一段出圓覺經言衆生業識不知自身内如 來圓覺妙心。若以智照用、則法界之無實如空華。衆生之妄相如第二月。妙心本 月、第二月影也。 ]

The Buddhists regard the nature of the mind to be real and enduring, and take heaven and earth and the myriad things to be provisional combinations. They say "Good sons, all sentient beings' various illusions are born from the perfectly enlightened marvelous mind of the Tathāgata, just like the sky-flowers come to exist in the sky....just like a second moon." 46 [ Interlinear Note:This passage comes from the Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment, where it explains how the karmic consciousness of sentient beings is not aware of the mysterious mind of the tathāgata's perfect enlightenment that resides within their own bodies. If one uses wisdom to illuminate the matter, then the unreality of the existent world is comparable to [illusory] flowers seen in the sky, and the false marks of sentient beings are like seeing a second moon. The mysterious mind is represented by the original moon, and the second moon is only a reflection. ]

又曰、「空生大覺中、如海一漚發。有漏微塵 國皆依空所立。」 [ Interlinear Note:按此一段出楞嚴 經、言大覺海中、本絶空有、由迷風飄鼓、妄發空漚而諸有生焉。迷風旣息、則 空漚亦滅。所依諸有、遂不可得而空覺圓融復歸元妙。 ] 佛氏之言、其害 多端。然滅絶倫理略無忌憚者。此其病根也、不得不砭而藥之也。

[The Buddhists] also say: "Space arises in the midst of Great Enlightenment, like the ocean producing a single bubble [of foam]. A myriad contaminated lands all arise based on space." "Space arising from the midst of Great Enlightenment is like the ocean producing a single bubble; a myriad defiled lands are born from the sky." 47 [ Interlinear Note:This passage comes from the Śūraṃgama-sūtra, which explains that within the sea of great enlightenment, which is originally completely separated from emptiness and existence, due to the stimulation from the winds of delusion, mistakenly produce air bubbles — referring to all living beings. Once the winds of delusion have stilled, then the air bubbles also disappear. All the existent things that depend upon this, if sought for, cannot be found, and emptiness and enlightenment perfectly merge, returning to their original mystery. ] The Buddhist's teachings contain much that is harmful. In this way they nullify human mores with not even the slightest reservation. This is a sickness at the very foundations, which cannot go untreated.

葢未有天地萬物之前、畢竟先有太極而天地萬 物之理。已渾然具於其中。故曰「太極生兩儀、兩儀生四象。」千變萬化皆從此 出。如水之有源、萬派流注。如木有根、枝葉暢茂。

Now, prior to the existence of heaven and earth and the myriad things, there is at the extreme beginning the principle of the great polarity, heaven and earth and the myriad things, already fully integrated in their midst. Therefore it is said: "The great polarity gives birth to the two primary forces, the two primary forces give rise to the four forms." 48 A thousand transformations and a myriad changes all manifest following this. It is like when a river has a source, pouring water into the ten thousand branch streams. It is like a tree that has roots, whose branches and leaves grow thickly.49

此非人智力之所得而爲也。亦非人智力之所得 而遏也。然此固有難與初學言者。以其衆人所易見者而言之。自佛氏殁至今數千 餘年、天之昆侖於上者。若是其確然也、地之磅礴於下者。若是其隤然也、人物 之生於其間者。若是其燦然也、日月寒暑之徃來。若是其秩然也、是以天體至大、 而其周圍運轉之度、日月星辰逆順疾徐之行。雖當風雨晦明之夕、而不能外於八 尺之璣、數寸之衡。

This is not something that comes to be through the power of human wisdom; nor can it be halted by human wisdom. Yet it is certainly hard to teach to beginning students, and therefore we explain it through phenomena that people can readily see [for themselves]. For the thousands of years from the death of the Buddha to the present, heaven has existed in amorphous form above. Once heaven is discerned, then the earth spreads out limitlessly below. If the earth is obediently accorded with, then humans and other living beings are born in the space [between heaven and earth]. If these are vividly distinguished, then the sun and moon, cold and heat come and go. If these are well-ordered, then the heavenly bodies of extremely great size, revolve in their systematic orbits; the sun, moon, stars and other bodies move this way and that, and at varying rates of speed. Yet even on a stormy twilight, none of this lies outside the purview of the eight-foot turntable, and several-inch crossbar.50

嵗年之積至於百千萬億之多、而二十四氣之平 分。與夫朔虛氣盈餘分之積 至於毫[釐-未+牙(釐)][絲+系(絲)]忽之微 而亦不 能外於乘除之兩(算?)。孟子所謂「天之高也、星辰遠也。苟求其故、千嵗之日 至 可坐而致者」此也。

The years pass and pile up in the millions, yet are divided equally into the twenty-four [two-week] periods. The shortfall and excess adjustments on the calendar accumulate, reaching the subtlety of a hair's breadth. Yet none fall outside of the [mathematical principles of] multiplication and division. When Mencius said: "Heaven is so high; the stars are so distant. If we investigate their works, through the solstices of a thousand years, we can sit and attain them," 51 he was referring to the same sort of principle.

是亦孰使之然歟。必有實理爲之主張也。假者、 可暫於一時、而不可久於千萬世。幻者可欺於一人而不可信於千萬人。而以天地 之常久、萬物之常生謂之假且幻。抑何說歟。豈佛氏無竆理之學。求其說而不得 歟。抑其心隘天地之大、萬物之衆不得容於其中歟。

Then who is it that is causing these things to be such? There has to be a true principle that is acting as the director [of these events]. The provisional can only last for a short time, and cannot endure for millions of generations. An illusion can only work its deception on one individual, and cannot be believed by millions of people. Yet the eternal existence of heaven and earth, and the endless production of the myriad living beings is said by the Buddhists to be provisional and illusory. What kind of theory is this?! What a joke the Buddhist's study is, in its failure to investigate principles. If we interrogate their theories, there is nothing of substance to be found. How could they be so narrow in mind so that the greatness of heaven and earth, and the abundance of the myriad things cannot be contained within [their minds]?

豈樂夫持守之約、而厭夫竆理之煩、酬酢萬變 之勞歟。張子曰「明不能盡誣天地日月以爲幻妄」 則佛氏受病之處、必有所自 矣。要之其所見蔽、故其所言詖如鳴呼、惜哉。予豈譊譊而多言者歟。予所言之 而不已者。正惟彼心之迷昧爲可憐。而吾道之衰廢、爲可憂而已耳。

How is it that they can enjoy paying strict attention to the essentials, and yet dislike the labor of fully investigating principles, and the suffering of responding to the endless changes of life. Zhangzai said: "Obviously, they are not able to fathom [existence] completely, and so they disparage heaven and earth and the sun and moon, regarding them as illusion and falsity." 52 Therefore, when the Buddhists are diseased, there must certainly be a reason. They place priority on the obscuration that they perceive, and therefore their discourse is unbalanced—and is like the chirping of birds, lamentable indeed! Why do I carry on with my prolix arguments [against them]? No matter what I say, the point cannot be exhausted. From the standpoint of correct thinking their delusion is pitiable. And the decline of our own Way is distressful indeed.


10. Critique of the Buddhist Notion of Hells 佛氏地獄之辨 [82a]

先儒辨佛氏地獄之說曰、世俗信浮屠誑誘。凡 有嗇事、無不供佛飯僧。云、爲死者滅罪資福、使生天堂受諸快樂。不爲者必入 地獄 剉燒舂磨受諸苦椘殜。不知死者形旣朽滅、神亦飄散。雖有剉燒舂磨、且 無所施。

An earlier Confucian philosopher criticized the Buddhist notion of hells, saying that people in the world who believe the Buddha are deceived. Whenever they have a harvest, they do not fail to make offerings to the Buddha and feed the saṅgha. He says that this is so that the deceased may have their crimes erased and increase their merit, bringing about rebirth in the heavenly realm, and experiencing all types of bliss. If [the offerings] are not made, then they will descend into the hells, where they will be bludgeoned, burnt, pounded and scraped, undergoing all sorts of suffering, pain, and sickness. They are not aware that the bodies of the dead have already wasted away, and that their spirit has been scattered in the wind. So even if there is such a thing as bludgeoning, burning, pounding and scraping, there is no-one there to undergo these punishments.

又况佛法未入中國之前、人固有死而復生者。 何故都無一人誤入地獄、見所謂十王者歟。此其無有而未足信也明矣。或曰、釋 氏地獄之說、皆是爲下根之人。設此怖令爲善耳。程子曰「至誠貫天地。人尚有 不化。」豈有立僞教而人可化乎。

More than this, before the Buddhist teachings entered China, there were definitely [accounts of] people dying and being reborn. How is it that out of all of these, there was not a single person who mistakenly entered hell, and saw the so-called Ten Kings?53 The lack of such accounts makes it clear that there is not sufficient ground to believe such a doctrine. Some say that the Buddhist teaching of hells is prescribed for those of inferior religious capacities; it is created to intimidate them into good behavior.54 Chengzi said: "Fully actualized sincerity pervades heaven and earth; how could there be anyone who is not transformed." How could an inauthentic teaching transform people?

昔有僧問予曰、「若無地獄人何畏而不爲惡 乎。」予曰、君子之好善惡惡「如好好色、如惡惡臭。」 皆由中而出。無所爲 而爲之。一有惡名至則其心愧恥。若撻于市、豈待地獄之說然後、不爲惡乎。其 僧默然。於此幷書之 俾世之惑於其說者、知所辨焉。

A while ago there was a monk who questioned me, saying, "If there were no [teaching of] hell, what could be used to frighten people away from doing evil?" I said, "the liking of goodness and the dislike of evil seen in the superior man, is like 'liking an attractive color, and disliking a repugnant odor,' 55 —they all arise from within oneself and there is no contrived intent that brings these feelings out. Once one has an evil reputation, then his/her mind is filled with shame. If one receives a public caning, why does he or she need the teaching of hell in order to not behave in an evil manner?" The monk was silent.

I am throwing myself wholeheartedly into the writing of this, to make the people of the world question these theories—to know that they are to be critiqued.


11. Criticism of the Buddhist Notion of Calamity and Fortune 佛氏禍福之辨 [82b]

天道福善而禍淫。人道、賞善而罰惡。葢由人 操心有邪正、行己有是非、而禍福各以其類應之。詩曰、「求福不囘。」夫子曰、 「獲罪於天無所禱也。」葢君子之於禍福。正吾心而已、修吾己而已。福不必求 而至、禍不必避而自遠。故曰、「君子有終身之憂無一朝之患。」 禍若有自外 而至者、順而受之而已。如寒暑之過於前、而吾無所與也。

The Way of Heaven is to confer good fortune upon the virtuous, and bring misfortune to the licentious. The way of humans is to praise the good and punish the evil. Since in the usage of people's minds there is incorrect and correct, and in self-behavior, there is right and wrong, fortune and misfortune come in accordance with the type of behavior. The Book of Odes says: "You cannot seek fortune by devious means." 56 Confucius said: "He who sins against Heaven has no one to pray to." 57 How does the superior man deal with misfortune and fortune? He corrects his own mind and nothing more. He cultivates his own self, and nothing more. Fortune does not need to be sought in order to be obtained, and misfortune does not need to be avoided for one to keep it at a distance. Therefore it is said: "The superior man experiences a lifetime of trouble without a moment of anxiety." 58 If misfortune comes to him from the outside, he goes along with it, and that's it. It is like the cold and hot weather that pass before us, which have no direct relation to ourselves.

彼佛氏則不論人之邪正是非。乃曰、歸吾佛者、 禍可免而福可得。是雖犯十惡大憝者、歸佛則免之。雖有道之士、不歸佛則不免 也。假使其說不虛。皆出於私心而非公道也、在所懲之也。况自佛說興至今數千 餘年。祚之間事佛甚篤。如梁武唐憲者、皆不得免焉。韓退之所謂、「事佛漸謹 年代尤促者」此其說不亦深切著明矣乎。

The Buddhists, on the other hand, do not discuss human incorrectness and correctness, or right and wrong. They even say that if you take refuge in the Buddha, misfortune can be avoided, and fortune can be gained. This means that even if one commits the ten great heinous crimes, if one has faith in the Buddha, he can avoid misfortune. And even if there is a scholar who is [firmly planted] in the Way, if he does not take refuge in the Buddha, he cannot avoid misfortune. Let's say, for argument's sake, that these theories are not false. They are still all derived from a selfish mind, rather than the impartial Way, and thus belong among that which should be squelched. What's worse is that the Buddha's teaching has flourished down to the present over a period of a few thousand years. Those who have served the Buddha in the midst of prayer with all their hearts, such as Wu of the Liang59 and Xian of the Tang, have all been unable to escape misfortune. As Han Tui said, those who serve the Buddha become more and more cautious, and their years shrink.60 Do these words not cut directly to the core of the matter?


12. Critique of the Buddhists' Begging for Food 佛氏乞食之辨 [82c]

食之於人、大矣哉。不可一日而無食。亦不可 一日而苟食。無食則害性命。苟食則害義理。洪範八政、食貨爲先。重民五教 惟食居首。子貢問政、則夫子以足食告之。此古之聖人知民之道。不可一日而無 食。

The importance of food for people is great indeed! One should not go without food for a day. Indeed, one should not even have to seek for food for a day. Not having food harms essence and life. Having to seek for food harms correct principles. Among the eight essentials of governing in the Great Standard, food and provisions are first.61 After the five human relationships only food is placed first when valuing the people.62 When Zigong asked [Confucius] about [the essentials of correct] governance, the master answered by saying "be sure there is enough food." ( (Analects 12:7) ) This is evidence of the ancient sages understanding the ways of people. They should not have to go a day without food.

故皆汲汲於斯 教以稼穡、制以貢賦。軍國有 須、祭祀賓客有給、鰥寡老幼有養 而無匱乏飢餓之歎。聖人之慮民遠矣。上而 天子公鄕大夫。治民而食。下而農工商賣、勤力而食。中而爲士者、入孝出悌、 守先王之道、以持後之學者。

Hence all have busied themselves in this way, teaching [the people] the techniques of farming, regulating the economy with taxation. The military and the state should have their necessities; there should be ample provisions for ceremonies and foreign emissaries; there should be sustenance for the elderly and the young, and there should be no anxiety over poverty or hunger. The sages planned well in advance for the people's [welfare]. Above, there are the emperor, the princes, and the grandmasters, who eat based on their governance of the people. Below are the farmers and merchants, who work for their nourishment. In the middle are the elites, who are filial at home and respectful in public. They preserve the way of the ancient kings, transmitting to the scholars of subsequent generations.

而食、此古之聖人知其不可一日而苟食。故自 上達下 各有其職、以受天養 其所以防民者至矣。不居此列者、姦民也。王法所 必誅、而不赦者也。金剛經曰、爾時世尊 食時着衣持鉢 入舍衞城[ Interlinear Note:按舍衞波斯國名 ]乞食於其城中。夫 釋迦牟尼者、以男女居室爲不義、出人倫之外、去稼穡之事、絶生生之本。

As for food, the ancient sages knew that people should not have to be anxious about food for a single day. Therefore, from the top of society to the bottom, each person has his own employment, such that he can receive heaven's sustenance. This is the paradigm for [seeing to] the welfare of the people. To not operate within this model is to commit treachery on the people. It is for this kind of behavior that kings should be censured, and should not be let off the hook. The Diamond Sutra says: "Then the World-Honored One, at the mealtime, donned his robes and took up his bowl. He entered into the city of Śrāvastī [ Interlinear Note:Śrāvastī is the name of a city in Persia. ] and begged for food in the city." ( (T 235.8.748c21-23) ) Since Śākyamuni regarded cohabitation between male and female as immoral, he abandoned society, and escaped from the work of farming, severing the roots of continuous reproduction.

欲以其道、思以易天下 信如其道 是天下無 人也。果有可乞之人乎。是天下無食也。果有可乞之食乎。釋迦牟尼者、西域王 之子也。以父之位、爲不義而不居、非治民者也。以男耕女織 爲不義而去之、 何勤力之有。 無父子君臣夫婦則又非守先王之道者也。

If one wants, by means of this "way," to take the people lightly, then believing in this, there will be no people left in the realm. From whom will you beg? There will also be no food in the realm. What food will you beg for? Śākyamuni was the son of an Indian king. But regarding his father's position as something undue, he would not assume it, and did not govern his people. Regarding the man's plowing and the woman's sewing as undue, he ran away from them. What kind of effort did he make? Without [the relationships of] father and son, ruler and minister, husband and wife, then there is also no preservation of the ways of the ancient kings.

此人雖一日食一粒 皆苟食也。信如其道 誠不食如蚯蚓、然後 可也。何爲乞而食乎。且食在自力 則爲不義 而在乞則爲義乎。佛氏之言無義無理。開 卷便見故於此論而辨之。

These people, eating only a grain a day, will all be anxious about food. If you believe in this kind of Way, you really can't think that you can eat like an earthworm, and continue to function? Then why should you beg to eat? Moreover, should eating due to one's own efforts be regarded as inappropriate, and eating based on begging be regarded as appropriate? The words of the Buddhists lack both appropriateness and reason. It can be seen the moment you open their books. Therefore I criticize their discourse.


13. Critique of the Buddhists' Seon Teachings 佛氏禪教之辨 [83c]

佛氏之說其初 不過論因緣果報 以誑誘愚民耳。 雖以虛無爲宗 廢棄人事。尚有爲善得福、爲惡得禍之說。使人有所懲勸。持戒 律不至於放肆。故人倫雖毀、義理未盡嗇了。

The early Buddhist teachings did not go beyond the discourse of causes, conditions, and retribution, so as to ensnare foolish people. Even though they took nothingness as their cardinal teaching, and abandoned the obligations of society, they still taught that the good obtain fortune while the evil reap misfortune. This engendered the custom of people choosing goodness over evil, of observance of the rules of morality, and not falling into dissipation. Therefore, even though the importance of human relationships was disparaged, appropriateness and reason were not completely stifled.

至達摩入中國自知其說淺陋不足以感高明之士、 於是曰、不立文字、言語道斷、直指人心、見性成佛。其說一出、捷徑便開、其 徒轉相論述。或曰、善亦是心 不可將心修心。惡亦是心、不可將心斷心。善惡 懲勸之道絶矣。

But when Bodhidharma arrived to China, he was aware of the shallowness of his own teachings, and that they would not suffice to move the eminently intelligent elites. Thus he proffered slogans such as "no establishment of words and letters," "cutting off the path of language," "directly pointing to the human mind," and "seeing the nature, one accomplishes buddhahood." Once these teachings had been released, they proliferated rapidly, and his followers continued to transmit and elaborate on them. Some said "goodness is none other than this mind, and you cannot use mind to cultivate mind. Evil is none other than this mind, and you can't use mind to eliminate mind." Alas, the practices of disciplining oneself against doing evil, and endeavoring to cultivate one's goodness disappeared.

或曰、及淫怒癡皆是梵行、戒律持身之道失矣。 自以爲不落窩臼、解縛去械。慠然出於禮法之外。放肆自恣、沒沒如狂、無復人 理。所謂義理者、至此都嗇也。

Others said, "Even lust, anger, and ignorance are divine practices;" 63 regulating one's behavior through observance of the precepts, he loses the Way.64 Regarding themselves as having avoided falling into the pit of entanglements, having released themselves from bondage and cast off the fetters, they arrogantly abandon themselves, ignoring the norms of social order. Wholly absorbed in self-indulgence, they are as blind as madmen, never to return to humane principles. The so-called principle of due-giving, is, at this point, utterly lost.

朱文公憂之曰、西方論緣業 卑卑喩羣愚 流傳 世代乆。梯接凌空虛。顧盻指心性 名言超有無。[ Interlinear Note:按佛說大略有三。其初齋戒後有義學、有禪學。緣之名有十二。曰 觸愛受取有生老死憂悲苦惱。業之名有三。曰身口意。指心性、謂卽心是佛、見 性成佛。 超有無、謂言有則云色卽是空 [84a] 言無則云空卽是色。 ]

Zhu Wengong (Zhuxi) lamented of this situation, saying: "The Western teachings of dependent origination and karma have excited and awakened the foolish crowd, and have now been long disseminated into the world. Climbing the latter beyond the heavens, they look back and point to the mind's nature; their sayings transcend being and non-being." [ Interlinear Note:The Buddhist teachings can be briefly summarized into three. The first is purifying discipline. This is followed by doctrinal study, which is in turn followed by meditation practice. Dependent origination includes twelve aspects. These are: contact, desire, sensation, grasping, being, becoming, old age, death, anxiety, sorrow, suffering, and affliction. The word karma has three connotations: those of bodily action, speech, and thought. Pointing to the mind's nature, is the point of such phrases as "this mind is itself Buddha," and "seeing the nature, one accomplishes Buddhahood." Transcending being and non-being, means that if you say things exist, then [the Buddhists] reply with "form is emptiness." If you say that they don't exist, then the response is "emptiness is form." ]

捷徑一以開靡然世爭趨。號空不踐實。躓彼榛 棘塗。誰哉繼三聖[ Interlinear Note:按三 聖謂禹周公 孔子。 ] 爲我焚其書、甚哉。其憂之之湥也。予亦爲之憮然三歎。三嘆

This led directly to the spread of confusion and disputation throughout the world. This is called hollowness, without producing concrete fruits. Treading through this brambled path, who will take up the mantle of the three sages? Would it not be extreme for us to burn their books? Our grief over this situation is extreme, and I myself am depressed to the point of making the three lamentations.


14. Critique of the Samenesses and Differences of Confucianism and Buddhism 儒釋同 異之辨65 [84a]

先儒謂儒釋之道。句句同而事事異。今且因是 而推廣之。此曰虛。彼亦曰虛。此曰寂、彼亦曰寂。然此之虛、虛而有。彼之虛、 虛而無。此之寂、寂而感。彼之寂、寂而滅。此曰知行、彼曰悟修。此之知、知 萬物之理具於吾心也。彼之悟、悟此心本空無一物也。此之行、循萬物之理而行 之、無所違失也。彼之修、絶去萬物而不爲吾心之累也。

Prior Confucian scholars have compared the Ways of Confucianism and Buddhism by saying that the words are the same, but their application differs. Let me elaborate further on this. We say "emptiness" and they say "emptiness." We say "quiescent" and they say "quiescent." But our emptiness is empty yet existent. Their emptiness is empty and non-existent. Our quiescence is quiescent yet responsive. Their quiescence is quiescent and negative. We say "knowledge and action," they say "awakening and cultivation." Our knowledge means to know that the principle of the myriad things is replete within our own minds. Their awakening is awakening to the fact that the original mind is empty, lacking anything whatsoever. Our action means to accord with the principle of the myriad things and act [in harmony with] it, without any error. Their cultivation means to sever the connection with the myriad things and regard them as unconnected to the mind.

此曰心具衆理、彼曰心生萬物。所謂具衆理者、 心中原有此理。方其靜也、至寂而此理之體具焉。及其動也、感通而此理之用行 焉。其曰、寂然不動。感而遂通天下之故、是也。

We say that the mind is replete with myriad principles. They say that the mind produces myriad things. "Replete with myriad principles" means that these kinds of principles are originally contained in the mind. Thus, when the mind is calmed, one becomes completely still, yet this principle is contained in essence. When [the mind] moves into activity, it feels and responds, bringing these principles into their function. The saying, "[the Changes] are quiescent and do not move. But if they are stimulated, they penetrate all situations under heaven" 66 refers to this.

所謂生萬法者、心中本無此法。對外境而後、 法生焉。方其靜也、此心無有所住。及其動也、隨所遇之境而生。其曰應無所住 而生其心。[ Interlinear Note:按此一段出般若經言。應 無所住者、了無内外、中虛無物。 而不以善惡是非介於胷中也。而生其心者、 以無住之心 應之於外而不爲物累也。謝氏解論語無敵無莫引此語。 ]

The meaning of "produces a myriad phenomena" means that the mind originally lacks these phenomena, but when it responds to the external world, these phenomena are born. When it is quiescent, this mind has no place of abiding; when it moves into activity, it produces [things] according to the objects that it meets. This is what [the Buddhists] refer to as "this mind is born in accordance with non-abiding." [ Interlinear Note:This passage is cited from the [Vajracchedika-] prajñāpāramitā-sūtra. ( (T 235.8.749c23) ) "Accordance without abiding" means the realization that there is neither inner nor outer, and in the middle, there is not a single thing. And thus there is no way for [such things as] good and evil, right and wrong to be mediated within one's mind. "And yet this mind is produced" means that using the non-abiding mind, one responds to the external world, and yet is not entangled by things. Mr. Xie explained the passage in the Analects that says "not for or against anything" by citing this teaching. ]67

又曰、心生則一切法生。心滅則一切法滅 [ Interlinear Note:按出起信論。 ]是也。此以理 爲固有。彼以法爲緣起。何其語之同事之異如是耶。此則曰酬酢萬變。彼則曰隨 順一切其言似乎同矣。

It is also said "when mind is produced, all phenomena are produced; when mind is extinguished, all phenomena are extinguished." [ Interlinear Note:This is cited from the Awakening of Faith. ]68 Both these citations reflect this view. We [Confucians] take principle as being intrinsic. They take phenomena (dharmas) to be dependently arisen. How can there be such an actual difference in application despite the similarity in language? Do not our expression "responding to a myriad changes and transformations" and their expression "according with all [phenomena]" seem to be the same?69

然所謂萬變者。其於事物之來、此心應之、各 因其當然之則。制而處之、使之不失其宜也。如有子於此、使之必爲孝而不爲賊。 有臣於此、使之必爲忠而不爲亂至於物。牛則使之耕而不爲牴觸。馬而使之載、 而不爲踶齕。虎狼則使之設檻置阱而不至於齩人。葢亦各因其所固有之理而處之 也。

Let's take a look at the expression "[responding to a myriad] changes and transformations." In this case when affairs and things approach, this mind responds to them, treating each appropriately. One regulates and manages them, using them without failing to take advantage of their strengths. With children, one should make them be filial, and not rebellious. With ministers, one should make them be loyal, rather than traitorous. This kind of principle also applies in the treatment of animals. Cattle should be harnessed for use in cultivation, rather than simply leaving them to butt heads. Horses should be used for transport, and should not be allowed to kick and bite. Tigers and wolves should be penned up in cages, or placed in pits, and should not be allowed to maul people. Thus, each thing should be handled according to its distinctive principle.

若釋氏所謂隨順一切者、凡爲人之子、孝者自 孝、賊者自賊。爲人之臣、忠者自忠、亂者自亂。牛馬之耕且載者。自耕且載。 牴觸踶齕、自牴觸踶齕。聽其所自爲而已。

If we follow the "accordance with all things" as taught by Śākyamuni, then in the case of children, if they are filial, then we just accept them as filial; if they are criminals, then we just accept them as criminals. In the case of vassals, if they are loyal, then we just accept them as being loyal; if they are rebellious, then we just accept them as being rebellious. As for the usage of cattle and horses, if they work in plowing and transport, then we use them for plowing and transport, and if they gore, butt, kick, and bite, then we let them gore, butt, kick, and bite. [The Buddhist way is to] acquiesce to the way things are, and nothing more.

吾無容心於其間。佛氏之學如此。自以爲使物 而不爲物所使。若付一錢則便沒奈何。佗此其事非異乎。然則天之所以生此人、 爲靈於萬物。付以財成輔相之職者、果安在哉。

We [Confucians] can't accept this sort of thing, but the Buddhist teaching is like this. It is natural that we should subject the beasts [to our usage], and not be subject [to their behaviors]. Should the mere weight of a single gram sink us? Are not ours and their manifest practices different? Thus, the reason that heaven gave birth to human beings is for them to serve as the guide for the myriad creatures. Placed in the role of assistant manager, how can we be at ease?

其說反復、頭緖雖多、要之此見得心與理爲一、 彼見得心與理爲二。彼見得心空而無理。此見得心雖空而萬物咸備也。故曰吾儒 一、釋氏二。吾儒連續、釋氏間斷。然心一也、安有彼此之同異乎。

This kind of explanation [can be] repeated again and again, and although there are numerous points that can be made, we can sum them up by saying that our [Confucian] manifest mind is at one with the principle, while their manifest mind is something other than the principle. Their manifest mind is empty, lacking principle. Our manifest mind, although empty, is replete with the myriad things. Therefore it is said that our Confucianism follows a unified [principle], while Buddhism is dualistic. Confucianism is consistent, while Buddhism is incoherent. Yet if the mind is one, how can there be such differences between our and their ways of seeing things?

葢人之所見、有正不正之殊耳。四大身中誰是 主。六根塵裏孰爲精。[ Interlinear Note:按地水火風四 大、和合爲一身。而別其四大則本無主。色聲香味觸法六根塵、相對以生。而別 其六根、則本無情。猶鏡像之有無也。 ] 黑漫漫地開眸着。終日聞聲不見 形。[ Interlinear Note:按以慧照用 刖(則)雖黑漫漫地 開眸着、暗中有明。猶鏡光之暗中生明也。 ] 此釋氏之體驗心處。

Now, there are differences between the correctness of what people see. Who is the subject of the body made of the four elements? And among the six faculties, who is the essence? [ Interlinear Note: the four elements of earth, water, fire and wind combine to make one body. But if they are separated into four elements, then there is originally no subject. Color, sound, odor, taste, touch, and concepts are the objects of the six faculties, which are born in dependence on each other. But if they are separated into six faculties, then there is originally no essence. It is just like the existence and non-existence of images in a mirror.70 ] "Opening up our eyes to the endless darkness, all day we listen to sound but do not see form." [ Interlinear Note: Here we are referring to Huizhao who says that even in endless darkness we open our eyes, the light shines in the darkness. It is just like a mirror's reflectivity producing light within darkness. ]71 This is the Buddhist field of experience of the mind.

謂有寧有跡。謂無復可存。惟應酬酢際。特達 見本根。[ Interlinear Note:按朱子詩 ] 此吾儒之 體驗心處。且道心但無形而有聲乎。抑有此理存於心、爲酬酢之本根歟。學者、 當日用之間、就此心發見處體究之。彼此之同異得失、自可見矣。

[Confucians] explain [the mind] to be something that stops and leaves traces. And they say that it cannot repeat its existence. It only resonates sympathetically according to the occasion. The most exceptional people can see its root.[ Interlinear Note: From Zhuxi's poems. ] This is the field in which we Confucians experience the mind. Shall we also say that the mind simply has no form, but yet has sound? Nevertheless, there is this principle existing in the mind, which serves as the basis for all interactive transformations. Scholars should, within their daily activities, experience and fathom this field of the manifestation of the mind. Then the sameness and difference, strong points and weak points of their [position] and our [position] will be naturally apparent.

請以朱子之說 申言之。「心雖主乎一身而其 體之虛靈、足以管乎天下之理。理雖散在萬物、而其用微妙、實不外乎人之一 心。」 初不可以内外精粗而論也。然或不知此心之靈、而無以存之、則昏昧雜 擾、而無以竆衆理之妙。不知衆理之妙、而無以竆之、則偏狹固滯、而無以盡此 心之全。此其理勢之相須、葢亦有必然者。

We can elaborate on this, relying on the teachings of Zhuzi. "Even though the mind is the master of a single body, its essence is a subtle numinousness, which is sufficient to act as an instrument for the principle of all under heaven. Even though this principle is spread out among the myriad creatures, its function is subtle and mysterious. Its truth is not found outside of the human mind." 72 At first, one cannot discuss it in terms of internal and external or refined and coarse. Yet if someone does not understand this mind's numinousness and has no way to retain it, then it will become dark and fragmented, with no way to fathom the mystery of myriad principles. Without understanding the mystery of myriad principles, and with no way to fathom them, one becomes partial and pigheaded, and can never exhaust this mind's totality. This is the mutual necessity of principle and impetus. It this not absolutely necessary?

是以聖人設教 使人默識此心之靈。而存之於 端莊靜一之中。以爲竆理之本 使人知有衆理之妙。而竆之於學問思辨之際、以 致盡心之功、巨細相涵動靜交養。初未嘗有内外精粗之擇、及其眞積力久而豁然 貫通焉。亦有以知其渾然一致、而果無内外精粗之可言矣。

Therefore the sages established their teachings to allow people to silently cognize the numinousness of this mind. Thus they abide in state of one-pointed dignity, in order to fathom the root of the principle, and allow people to understand the existence of the mystery of myriad principles. And they fathom it in their moments of study and deliberation, in order to fully develop the mind's function. Gross and subtle nourish each other; movement and stillness nurture each other. While at first there has never been such a thing as differentiation between internal and external or refined and coarse, when truth gathers momentum over a period of time, its clarity pervades fully. And indeed, when one knows its undifferentiated unity, then how can one say that there is neither inner and outer, or subtle and coarse.

今必以是爲淺近支離、而欲藏形匿影。別爲一 種幽湥恍惚艱難阻絶之論。務使學者莽然措其心於文字言語之外。而曰道必如是、 然後可以得之。則是近世佛學詖淫邪遁之尤者、而欲移之。以亂古人明德新民之 實學。其亦誤矣。朱子之言、反復論辨、親切著明。 學者於此 潛心而自得之可 也。

Now we cannot but regard this as a theoretical system that is shallow and fragmentary, and which desires to conceal shape and hide form. It can be regarded a unique doctrine that is obscure, spellbinding, difficult, and impedimentary. It makes scholars carelessly place the mind outside the realm of text and words. Yet they say that the Way must be like this, and that one can attain it afterwards. Hence, modern scholars of Buddhism suffer from the faults of depravity, lewdness, evil, and evasiveness, desiring to shift [the meanings] around. They skew the true learning of the ancients of illuminating virtue and renovating the people. This is certainly wrong! We should deliberate repeatedly on Zhuxi's words, which are genuine and clear. If scholars would immerse their minds in these [teachings], they will naturally attain them.


15. On the Entry of the Buddhadharma into China  佛法入中國[ Interlinear Note:按此以下至佛甚謹、年代尤促引用眞氏大學行義說 ] [85c]

漢明帝聞西域有神、其名曰佛。遣使之天竺 得其書及沙門以來。其書大抵以虛無爲宗。貴慈悲不殺、以爲人死精神不滅 隨 復受形。生時所作善惡皆有報應。故所貴修鍊、以至爲佛。善爲宏濶勝大之言、 以勸誘愚俗。情於其道者、號曰沙門。於是中國始傳其術。圖其形像 而王公貴 人 獨楚王英最先好之。

The Han Emperor Ming heard that there was a god in the Western regions, and that his name was Buddha. He thus dispatched emmisaries, who brought back with them monks and texts. These texts, for the most part, contained a doctrine of nothingness. They valued compassion and abstinence from killing, and understood that when humans die, their spirits do not perish, but subsequently return to take on new form. The good and evil activities carried out during one's life all result in retribution; hence, they prize religious training as the means for attaining buddhahood. They skillfully promulgate their winning words in order to entice gullible secular people. Those who dedicated themselves to the [Buddhist] path, were called śramaņas. From this time, China began to undergo transmission of the [Buddhist] technology. They designed their sculpture. Among the kings, princes, and the aristocracy, Chu Wangying73 was the first to appreciate it.


16. Serve the Buddha and Reap Misfortune 事佛得禍 [86a]

梁武帝中大通元年九月幸同泰寺、設四部無遮 大會。釋御服持法衣 行淸淨大捨。羣臣以錢一億萬 祈白三寳、奉贖皇帝。僧衆 默然。上還内、上自天監中、用釋氏法。長齋斷肉、日止一食、 惟菜羮糲飯而 已。多造塔公私費損。

In the ninth month of the first year of Datong (527), Emperor Wu of the Liang went out to visit Tongtai si, where he sponsored an assembly of the equal dharma for the four groups of Buddhist disciples.74 He took off his imperial garb and donned the ecclesiastical robes, practicing the pure great donation. All of the vassals were obliged to donate a large sum of money, pray to the three treasures, and make offerings to his highness, while the monks remained silent. All those in the emperor's imperial court, as well as his administrators, practiced the Buddhist teachings. They carried out long abstention from the consumption of meat, and limited themselves to a single meal per day, which consisted of nothing more than cooked vegetables and brown rice. He built many temples from public and private funds.

時王侯子弟 多驕淫不法、上年老厭於萬機。 又專精佛戒 每斷重罪 則終日不[懁?]。或謀叛逆事覺、亦泣而宥之。由是王侯 益橫。或白晝殺人於都街。或暮夜公行剽掠。有罪亡命 匿於主家、有司不敢搜 捕。上湥知其弊、而溺於慈愛、不能禁也。

At that time there were many among the regional rulers and their followers who were arrogant, self-serving, and unlawful, and the elder [advisors] were oppressed with many duties. Again [the emperor] applied himself to the Buddhist precepts [saying that] if one eliminates all of one's heavy sins, one can pass the days without anxiety. When he became aware of rebellious plots, he tearfully acknowledged them. From this point, the regional rulers became increasingly out of control. Some murdered people in the city streets in broad daylight. Some plundered on the highways by night. Those who were supposed to be punished by exile hid themselves out in the manors, and the police did not dare to pursue them. The emperor knew well of this degradation, but absorbed in tender compassion, was unable to stop it.

中大同元年三月庚戌 上幸同泰寺。遂停寺省 講三慧經。夏四月丙戌解講、是夜同泰寺浮屠災。上曰此魔也、宐廣爲法事、乃 下詔曰、道高魔盛、行善障生。當竆兹土木、倍增徃日、遂起十二層浮屠。將成、 値侯景亂而止。及陷臺城、囚上於同泰寺。上口燥乾、求蜜於寺僧。 不得、竟 以餓死。 [87a]

On the third month of the first year of Zhongdatong (546) the emperor [again] went out to Tongtai si. He ended up staying at the temple to study and lecture on the Sutra of the Three Wisdoms.75 He disbanded the lecture in the summer, the fourth month. That evening, the pagoda of Tongtai si was consumed in a fire. The emperor said it was the work of demon spirits, and extensively ran Buddhist services. He explained it in an edict, saying, "when the Way is heightened demons abound; when goodness is practiced, obstructions are born." Then he worked intensively at the preparation of raw materials, double what had been used the last time, and erected a twelve-story pagoda. When it was just about finished, some honest nobility arose in rebellion and stopped it. They trapped him within the perimeter of the tower, imprisoning the emperor at Tongtai si. The emperor's mouth was parched, and he sought for honey from the temple monks. But he was not able to get it, and in the end, died of starvation.


17. Abandoning the Heavenly Way and Chatting about Buddhahood 舍天道而談佛果 [87a]

唐代宗 始末甚重佛。宰相元載 王縉皆好佛 縉左甚。上嘗問、佛言報應 果有之耶。載等對曰、國家運祚靈長。非宿植福業、 何以致之。福業已定。雖時有小災、終不能爲害。所以安史 皆有子禍 懷思出門 病死 二虜不戰而退。此皆非人力所及、豈得言無報應也。上由是湥信之。常於 禁中 飯僧百餘人。有宼至、厚加賞賜 良田美利。多歸僧寺 載等侍上 多談佛事 政刑日紊矣。

The Tang emperor Taizong venerated the Buddha from the beginning [of his life] to the end. His ministers Yuanzai and Wangjin both also loved Buddhism, with the minister of the left, Jin, being extreme. The emperor once asked: "Buddhism teaches karmic retribution. Does it really exist?" Zai answered, saying: "Your royal house has experienced continual blessings. If it were not for propitious karma from previous lives, how could [your successes] have come to this extent? It has been predetermined by your meritorious activities. Even though there are times of minor calamities, they have, in the end, not been able to bring harm. And in the same way, An [LuShan] and Shi [Siming] both had ill fortune in their children. Their harbored thoughts went out into the world as sickness and death. These two villains ended up backing down without a struggle. These are all things not attainable by human power, so how could one say that there is no such thing as karmic retribution?" From this time, the emperor deeply believed in this doctrine. He continually observed the prohibitions, and fed more than one hundred monks. When invaders came, he richly rewarded them with honors, fertile fields, and excellent profits. The emperor returned often to the saṃgha and the monastery, where Zai would wait on him, offering many conversations regarding Buddhist matters, while the day-to-day administration of laws and punishments was left in disarray.


18. Serving the Buddha Assiduously, the Length of Reign Considerably Shortens 事佛甚謹 年代尤促 [87d]

元和十四年、迎佛骨于京師 先是功德使上言 鳳翔寺76 塔、有佛指骨相傳。三十年一開、開則歳豐人安。來年應開、請迎之。 上從其言、至是 佛骨至京師留禁中三日。歴送諸寺。王公士民瞻奉捨施、如恐 不及。

In the fourteenth year of Yuanhwa (819), the Buddhist relics were brought to the capital. This was preceded by a proclamation from the emperor declaring their virtue, saying "In a temple stūpa in Fengxiang [Famensi] there are the remains of one of the bones from the Buddha's finger. This relic is opened up once every thirty years, and its opening brings plentiful harvests and stability to the people. We will open it next year, so please come and pay your respects." From these words, it came to this: the Buddha's bone arrived to the capital where it was kept in the palace for three days. After this, it was circulated around to all the temples. The princes, dukes, elites, and common people paid their respects and made offerings, as if they were afraid of not doing enough.

刑部侍郞韓愈上表諫曰、佛者夷狄之一法耳。 自黃帝至禹湯文武、皆亭壽考、百姓安樂。當是時、未有佛也。漢明帝時、始有 佛法。其後亂亡相繼、運祚不長。宋齊梁陳元魏以下、 事佛漸謹年代尢促。唯 梁武在位四十八年。

Hanyu, an Attendant Gentleman from the Ministry of Justice memorialized the emperor, saying:

Buddhism is just a single teaching of the barbarians. From the Yellow Emperor down to Yu and Tang, Wen and Wu, all lived long, and the people were contented. At that time, there was no such thing as Buddhism. It was at the time of Mingdi of the Han that the Buddhist teachings appeared [in China] for the first time. Following this [within the empires] there was nothing but rebellion and collapse, led by short-lived rulers. From the time of the Song, Qi, Liang, Chen, and the beginning of the Wei, the Buddha was served with increasing seriousness, as the length of the reigns steadily became shorter. Only Wu of Liang was able to stay on the throne as long as forty-eight years.

前後三捨身77 竟爲侯景所逼 餓死臺城。 事佛求福 乃反得禍。由此觀之 佛不足信可知矣。佛本夷狄之人、與中國、言語 不通、衣服殊製。不知君臣父子之情。假如其身尚在、來朝京師。陛下容而接之。 不令惑衆也。 况其身死已久。枯槁之骨 豈且以入宮禁。乞付有司、投諸水火 永絶禍本。上大怒 將加極刑 宰相裴度崔羣等言。愈雖狂發於忠懇 宜寛容以開 言路 乃貶潮州刺史。

But even he went back and forth three times in his abandonment of his life to Buddhist practice. In the end he was trapped by Houjing and made to starve to death in the castle tower. He served the Buddha seeking merit, and instead ended in with disaster. Observing this we can understand that the Buddha is not worthy of our belief. The Buddha was originally a barbarian whose language was incompatible, and whose clothes were different from those of the middle kingdom. He did not know the dispositions of our princes and ministers, fathers and sons. Supposing that he was still alive, and came to pay his respects to the emperor in the capital. The emperor would greet him and have discourse with him. He would not allow him to delude the people.78 How much more so now that he has long since passed away? How is it that a dried up bone should be brought into the forbidden palace? Why not just hand it over to the officials, and use it to chase away all of the natural disasters, to permanently sever the root of misfortune?

The emperor was furious, and wanted to inflict the most severe of punishments. But ministers such as Peidu 裴度 and Cuiqun 崔羣 spoke up [in Hanyu's behalf], saying, "Even though Yu is crazy, [his protestations] come from a mind of sincerity and loyalty. Please keep an open mind and leave room for appeal." Thus, he was demoted to the position of censor of the region of Chao.79


19. Critique to Expose Heterodox Teachings 闢異端之辨 [88b]

堯舜之誅四凶以其巧言令色方命圮族也。禹亦 曰何畏乎巧言令色。葢巧言令色 喪人之心方命圮族。敗人之事、聖人所以去之、 而莫之容也。湯武之征桀紂也、一則曰、予畏上帝、不敢不正。80 一則曰 予不順天、厥罪惟均、天命天討。非已之所得而辭也

Yao's and Shun's censure of the four villains was because their clever speech and ingratiating countenances went contrary to [heaven's] mandate and brought harm to the families. Yu also said: "Why do I fear clever speakers with ingratiating countenances? Well, clever speech and ingratiating countenances go contrary to the mandate and bring harm to the families. The sages avoid activities that bring harm to people, and won't accept them [when they are done by others]." Tang's and Wu's attack on Jie and Zhou is because at one moment they would say, "I am in awe of the emperor, and would not dare to act incorrectly," and at another moment they would say, "I do not go along with heaven; crimes are all the same, heaven imparts and heaven punishes. I do not speak of the things I have not experienced myself."

夫子曰、攻乎異端斯害也已。害之一字、讀之 令人凜然。孟子之好辯 所以距楊墨也、楊墨之道不距、聖人之道不行。故孟子 以闢楊墨爲已任。其言曰、能言距楊墨者、亦聖人之徒也。其望助於人者至矣。 墨氏兼愛、疑於仁。楊氏爲我、疑於義。其害至於無父無君。此孟子所以闢之之 力也。

Confucius said, "To apply oneself in the study of heterodox teachings is harmful." 81 This word "harmful" can be read as meaning that the people come to hold such teachings in awe. Mencius' love of debate, with which he corrected Yang and Mo, was precisely because the way of Yang and Mo was wrong, and the way of the sages wasn't being followed.82 Therefore Mencius took the critique of Yang and Mo to be his personal responsibility. He said:

those who are able to correct Yang and Mo are indeed the disciples of the sages—his desire to be supported by others here was extremely great indeed. Mo taught universal love, and thus thwarted the teachings of humaneness. Yang taught "every man for himself," and thus thwarted the teachings of justice. The harm brought by these teachings extended to the destruction of the role of father and the role of ruler. ( (Mencius 6:9) )

It is from this that Mencius got his energy to pursue this issue.

若佛氏則其言高妙、出入性命道德之中、其惑 人之甚。又非楊墨之比也。朱子曰、佛氏之言、彌近理而大亂眞者。此之謂也、 以予惛庸、不知力之不足、而以闢異端己任者。非欲上繼六聖一贒之心也、懼世 之人、惑於其說 而淪胥以陷。人之道至於滅矣。嗚呼。亂臣賊子、人人得而誅 之、不必士師。邪說橫流、壞人心術。人人得而闢之、不必聖贒。此予之所以望 於諸公。而因以自勉焉者也。

In the case of Buddhism, the teachings are lofty and profound, and traverse the discourses of essence and life and the path of virtue: thus their [power to] delude people is extremely great-[a level] to which Yang and Mo cannot be compared. Zhuzi said, "The Buddhist teachings draw close to the principle and greatly contort reality." 83 This means that since I am ignorant and ordinary, I do not realize that my strength is insufficient, and thus I take the critique of heterodoxy as my personal responsibility. Not desiring to transmit the mind of the six sages and one worthy, I fear that the people of the world will be deceived by their teachings, and plunge together into a pit. The people's path will lead to destruction. Alas! Treacherous ministers and traitorous children are something that should be recognized and censured by everyone. You should not wait for the Chief Judge. When erroneous teachings overflow as an art of destroying humanity, everyone should recognize and critique them. You should not wait for the sages and worthies. This is what I desire to see from our rulers—but it should be based on their own efforts.


Notes

1. The above paragraph summarizes the classical Chinese explanation of how various phenomena come into being, based on yin/yang cosmology, which extends back to the Yijing. The five phases of early Chinese cosmology: wood, fire, earth, metal, and water are first seen in the "Great Plan" chapter of the Book of History.[back]

2. Both of these citations are from the same passage in the Xici zhuan, part 1. See Legge 353, Wilhelm, 293.[back]

3. Here, and in the passages that follow, Jeong is taking issue with the Buddhist doctrine of transmigration, which explains that when living beings pass away, some part of the mind exists in a non-material realm, and subsequently enters into another body upon rebirth. Jeong says that when something dies, it utterly disappears. When living beings are born, they are born spontaneously, with no prior transcendent history.[back]

4. From the 禮記、郊特牲 .[back]

5. From a present-day scientific standpoint, Jeong is of course mistaken here, since it is in fact the case that water is re-assimilated into the water table to be used again.[back]

6. To clarify the actual Buddhist traditional view, I do not having read anywhere in the Buddhist canon that the number of living beings is "fixed." Usually, their number is described as being "infinite." [back]

7. That is, as causes and effects with the special connotation of (hetu-phala) as understood in Buddhist karmic theory.[back]

8. From the main text of the first hexagram .[back]

9. The two compound words 腎水 and 心火 are technical terms in traditional Chinese medicine for certain types of sickness. They also indicate the basic traditional Chinese physiological understanding of the affinity of the kidneys with the phase of water, and the heart with the phase of fire.[back]

10. 虛靈不昧. This is the description of a mind that lacks the limitations of private concerns, which is equanimous, and yet capable of penetrating everywhere. This comes from Zhuxi's commentary on the Great Learning. ( (大學章句、明 德、朱注) ) [back]

11. Yan and mu are synonyms that mean "eye." [back]

12. ( (HBJ 4.742b10-11. ) ) Jinul says 心性之外 無一法可得.[back]

13. ( (HBJ 4.746c113-14) ) . Jinul says 非此心外有佛可成也。 [back]

14. ( (Zhuxi 朱子語類, 卷第九 學三, 論知行.) ) [back]

15. ( (T 2016.48.656b7) ) [back]

16. This is a teaching of Chan, but as Zongmi points out in his Chan Preface, only one type. Zongmi says:

Chan can be analyzed more finely into three types of teachings: [...] The first is that of stopping falsity and cultivating the mind. The second is that of completely effacing without a trace. The third is directly expressing the nature of the mind. When teaching these three, the hidden meaning of the first type is that of explaining characteristics based on the nature. The hidden meaning of the second is effacing characteristics to express the nature. The hidden meaning of the third is that the direct manifestation of the true mind is the nature. ( (T 2015.48.402b16-19) )

. What Jeong is referring to there is the third, most direct type of teaching.[back]

17. (方寸之間,事事物物皆有定理矣 ). ( (Zhuxi yulei, 朱子語類卷第十四, #280) ) [back]

18. Also from Zhuxi's comments on the Great Learning. The full line says 明徳者人之所得乎天而虚靈不昧 以具聚理而應萬事者也。」襌家則但以虚靈不昧者為性而無以 具衆理以下之事.[back]

19. Phrases like 空寂 靈知 and 隨縁不變 are found in numerous places throughout the Zongjinglu, but Jeong could just as well have gotten this general idea from any number of East Asian Buddhist texts that were readily available to him.[back]

20. This phrase appears twice in the Sayings of Layman Pang as well as in case 42 of the Biyan lu. Zokuzōkyō Vol 120 p. 55a9-11 and 71a7-8; T 2003.48.179b28-c02. Also see T 2037.49.832a14.[back]

21. From Zhou Dunyi's Explanation of the Diagram of the Great Polarity. Much of Jeong's argument in this section is derived from Zhou's theories of the human nature here and in other places in his writings.[back]

22. Academia Sinica Digital Archives: 春秋左傳正義/成公/卷二十 七/傳十三年: "劉子曰吾聞之民受天地之中以生所謂命也。是以有動作禮義威儀 之則以定命也。" This is an oft-cited passage in the writings of Zhuxi and many other Neo-Confucian philosophers. [back]

23. Jeong is here alluding to the famous passage in the Mencius, which claims that humaneness is the basic constituent of the mind of all people, since any person, no matter who, will spontaneously move to rescue a child that is about to fall into a well. See Mencius 3:6.[back]

24. The above four pairs are the "four beginnings" taught by Mencius—four kinds of seeds of goodness that Mencius believed to be possessed by all people. Also see Mencius 3:6. The sense of sympathy for others is the origin of humaneness ; the sense of shame and disgust is the origin of the sense of giving due treatment ; the sense of courtesy and respect is the origin of propriety , and the sense of right and wrong is the origin of wisdom .[back]

25. See Analects 3:19.[back]

26. In the Chuanxilu 體用一原、顯微無間 is identified as a citation from Chengyi.[back]

27. I have not found this particular citation, but the motif of Mañjuśrī hanging out in the bars is not unusual.[back]

28. "Correcting the internal with reverence, correcting the external with due-givinge" is a repeated aphorism found in the texts of the Chengs, Zhuxi, and many other Neo-Confucianism writers, originally drawn from the Yijing: in the text of kun , the second hexagram. See Wilhelm, p. 393. [back]

29. (584-618) A Confucian scholar of the Sui from Longmen 龍門 . Styled Zhongyan 仲淹, posthumously named Wenzhong zi 文中子. He was the grandfather of Wangbo 王勃, and the teacher of Fang Xuanling 房玄齢 and Weizheng 魏徴 of the Tang. His extant works include the Zhongshuo 中説 and the Wenzhongzi 文中子 .[back]

30. Xici zhuan, part 1, ch. 12.[back]

31. 道之大原出於天」 is from ( (漢書董仲 舒) ) [back]

32. From the Diamond Sutra, T 235.8.749a24-25[back]

33. Chenghao "Selected Sayings," #32. Chan, 535-536.[back]

34. Mingdao was the style of Chenghao.[back]

35. Doctrine of the Mean, chapter 1.[back]

36. Chenghao, "Selected Sayings" , #32. Chan, p. 535.[back]

37. Zhuxi 朱子語類, 卷第一 (太極天地上)[back]

38. This is one of Mencius most influential pronouncements. From the first half of the chapter of 公孫丑 (Mencius 3:6). [back]

39. This is a basic approach to the brand of philosophy espoused by Confucius and Mencius, that caring for people is not something done indiscriminately or equally (as Mozi taught), but is prioritized. One is supposed to pay the greatest degree of attention to one's parents, then one's family members and relatives; after doing this adequately, one can extend oneself to strangers. Jeong is pointing the difference between this and the Buddhist notion of compassion, which has as one of its main characteristics that it not be discriminatory. [back]

40. Mencius 7A:45. Mencius said, "The Superior Man cares about creatures but does not love them as if they are people. He loves people as people, but not in the intimate way he loves his family. He loves his family intimately and loves people as people. He loves people as people and cares about creatures." (孟子曰、君子之於物也、愛之而弗仁、於民也、仁之而弗親、親親 而仁民、仁民而愛物。) [back]

41. That is, a total stranger.[back]

42. Referring to monks who abandon society in favor of monastic life.[back]

43. The two logographs that comprise this Chinese compound are (1) that for a an adult male ritual cap, and (2) a child's braid, and thus is an oxymoron.[back]

44. A reference to a story in the Shiji, wherein a soldiers led by a drunken commander traveling a path at night hastily draw their swords to kill a snake, which later turns out to be a boy. ( (史記/本紀/卷八 高祖本紀/ 第八 ) ) [back]

45. This is probably a reference to the idea expressed in various passages of the Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment, for example at T 842.17.916b6-10, or 919c28.[back]

46. From the Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment p. 91-92, ( (T 842.914a10) ) and p. 78 ( (T 842.913b25) ) .[back]

47. An oft-cited line from the Śūraṃgama-sūtra T 945.19.130a21.[back]

48. Xici zhuan. See Legge p. 373, Wilhelm p. 318.[back]

49. These two tropes of fount-streams and roots-branches are commonly used to express the theme of essence and function in Confucian, Daoist, and Buddhist literature.[back]

50. The turntable (or gear) and crossbar are parts of an ancient Chinese device used for astronomical charting and calculation, called a xuánjī yùhéng 璇璣玉衡. [back]

51. Mencius, 8:26.[back]

52. From the Daxin 大心 (seventh) chapter of Zhangzai's Zhengmeng 正蒙. In this passage, Zhangzai is making a similar criticism of the Buddhists: that they do not investigate fully into the principles of things.[back]

53. The ten kings who guard the dark realms of the dead, mentioned in such texts as the Guanding jing 灌頂經 ( (T 1331.21.495b28 ff.) ) . [back]

54. This kind of characterization was made by Zongmi in his Inquiry into the Origin of Humanity. In the opening portion of that treatise, where he introduces the "teaching for men and gods" he says:

The Buddha, for the sake of beginners, at first set forth the karmic retribution of the three periods of time [i.e., past, present, and future] and the causes and effects of good and bad [deeds]. That is to say, [one who] commits the ten evils in their highest degree falls into hell upon death, [one who commits the ten evils] in their lesser degree becomes a hungry ghost, and [one who commits the ten evils] in their lowest degree becomes an animal.

( (Gregory, Inquiry, p. 115. T 1886.45.708c15-16.) ) [back]

55. From the Great Learning, Chapter six, verse one. See http://www.hm.tyg.jp/~acmuller/contao/greatlearning.htm. [back]

56. ( (Maoshi, Daya. 毛詩, 大雅, 文王之什, 旱麓 ) ) .[back]

57. Analects, 3:13.[back]

58. Originally found in the Liji 禮記, 檀弓上; cited by Mencius at 4B:29.[back]

59. The demise of Emperor Wu despite his Buddhist faith is given account by Hanyu. See next note.[back]

60. ( (Liehzhuan) ) , Hanyu. 列傳/卷一百七十六 列傳第一百一/韓愈 (Academia Sinica). Or, the Hanchangli wenshi 韓昌黎文集, 第三十九巻: 論佛骨表 [back]

61. Great Standard is the title of a section of the Book of History 書經, or Book IV of the Zhoushu (周書). It consists of nine chapters said to be taken from the Luo Text洛書 that Yu obtained. Considered the original authoritative text for the formation of classical policy and morality. Legge translates it as "The Great Plan." The eight essentials for governing is a subsection of this. Legge, translated this text with the title The Shoo King. On page 327: "Third, of the eight objects of government: the first is called food; the second, commodities; the third, sacrifices; the fourth, the minister of works; the fifth, the minister of instruction; the sixth, the minister of crime; the seventh, the entertainment of guests; the eighth, the army." ( (pp. 320-344. ) ) [back]

62. From the chapter entitled "The Successful Completion of the War" 武成 in the Shijing. Legge translates: "[King Wu] attached great importance to the people's being taught the duties of the five relationships of society, and to take care of food, for funeral ceremonies, and for sacrifices. 重民五教惟 食喪祭 . " ( (Shangshu, Zhoushu, "Wusheng" 尚書, 周書, 武成 ) ) [back]

63. ( (Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment, p. 162; T 842.17.917b5.) ) [back]

64. Although this exact phrasing is absent, this message is expressed in the same passage from the SPE just prior.[back]

65. Although this is only the fourteenth of the nineteen sections, it can be regarded to some extent as a summation of the philosophical, doctrinal, and practical arguments against Buddhism. Viz., from this section and above, the formation of the critique has been based largely on the writings of Zhu and the Cheng brothers, whereas the subsequent sections tend to be composed of anecdotal references from the earlier, philosophically less sophisticated writings of anti-Buddhist literati such as Hanyu, which criticize Buddhism on the basis of its being a foreign religion, a harbinger of calamity, and so forth. This is also the chapter that Gihwa takes up for most direct refutation in the concluding passages of the Hyeonjeong non, with a comparison of the respective passages offering the clearest evidence that Gihwa indeed composed the Hyeonjeong non as a response to the PSJ.[back]

66. Xici zhuan Part 1.[back]

67. Xie is apparently the name of a Confucian commentator that I have not yet identified.[back]

68. The Awakening of Faith says: 以心生則種種法生。心滅則種種 法滅 T 1666.32.577b22.[back]

69. The notion of "sympathetic resonance" especially the extent to which it can be found pervasively in the various East Asian philosophical traditions, is explored in depth by Robert Sharf in his Coming to Terms with Chinese Buddhism.[back]

70. See Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment page 78, T 842.17.914b25-28.[back]

71. See, for one account of this, case #86 of the Biyan Lu (Blue Cliff Record). T 2003.48.211c26-28. [back]

72. 朱子語類卷 第十八[back]

73. Chu Wangying was the installed name of Liuying, of the latter Han. Born as the sixth son of the emperor Guangwu , in his young adulthood, he led the life of an itinerant knight, engaging himself in acts of chivalry in defense of the oppressed. In his later years, he became an adherent of Daoism and Buddhism. ( (後漢書, 七十二 ) ) [back]

74. The four groups are monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen.[back]

75. The Sanhui jing; one fascicle, T 768.17.701, K 1025. Translated during the Eastern Jin by a presently unknown figure. It consists of a list of sixty-plus items that are a guide for practice and seems to be composed of pieces that have been culled from other scriptures. [back]

76. This refers to 法門寺 in the region of 鳳翔. [back]

77. Hanyu's original text has 前後三度、捨身施佛。[back]

78. The original text says: 不過宣政一見、禮賓一設、賜衣一襲、衞而出之於境。 不令惑衆也。 "He would not exceed the standard single audience at Xuanzheng palace; he would offer a single reception as is proper for guests; he would present him with a single set of clothes; he would protect and guide his departure from the realm. He would not allow him to delude the people." [back]

79. For online version of Hanyu's text, see http://acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~phalsall/texts/hanyu.html.[back]

80. 尚書/商書/湯誓[back]

81. Analects 2:16.[back]

82. According to the Mencius, the teachings of Yang and Mo were extremely popular at the time. See the Mencius 6:9. [back]

83. 四書章句集注, 中庸章句, 中庸章句序 [back]

Copyright © Charles Muller— 2005