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Doctrinal Essentials of the Sūtra of Immeasurable Life (Muryangsujeong jong-yo) 無量壽經宗要

Charles Muller

June 23, 2013

Table of Contents

1. Doctrinal Essentials of the Sūtra of Immeasurable Life (Muryangsujeong jong-yo) 無量壽經宗要

1. Doctrinal Essentials of the Sūtra of Immeasurable Life (Muryangsujeong jong-yo) 無量壽經宗要


By the Venerable Wonhyo

1.1. Preface

原夫經旨欲明, 略啓四門分別 1 。初述教之大意。次簡經之宗致。三者擧人分別。四者就文解釋。

Desiring to explain the gist of this sūtra, I will analyze the text in four ways: (1) explaining the general sense of the sūtra, (2) underscoring its distinctive tenets, (3) distinguishing the capacities of people, (4) explicating the text. 2

1.2. The General Sense of the Sūtra

言大意者。然夫衆生心性融通無礙。泰若 虛空。湛猶巨海。若虛空故、其體平等、無別相而可得。何有淨穢之處。猶巨海 故、其性潤滑、能隨緣而不逆。豈無動靜之時。爾乃或因塵風淪五濁而隨轉。沈 苦浪而長流。或承善根截四流而不還。至彼岸而永寂。若斯動寂皆是大夢。以覺 言之無此無彼。穢土淨國本來一心。生死涅槃終無二際。

The essence of the minds of sentient beings interpenetrate without obstruction. They are vast like space, deep like the ocean. Being like space, their essence is the equal everywhere, with no distinctive marks to be apprehended. How could there be a place of purity or defilement? Being like the ocean, this nature is fluid and is able to follow conditions without resistance. How could it not have moments of movement or stillness? Sometimes, because of the wind of defilement the mind-essence is engulfed by the five turbidities 3 such that it flows along with them, long submerged under the waves of suffering. Sometimes, inheriting wholesome roots, it cuts off the four raging currents, 4 such that they never return. Reaching the other shore, there is eternal peace. Here, the appearances of movement or stillness are nothing but a great dream. Speaking of it from an enlightened viewpoint, it is neither this (defiled and agitated) nor that (pure and quiescent). Defiled lands and pure states are originally but one mind. Saṃsāra and nirvāṇa are, in the end, not two realms.

然歸原大覺積功乃得、隨流長夢不可頓開。 所以聖人垂迹、有遐有邇。所設言教或襃或貶。至如牟尼世尊現此娑婆、誡五惡 而勸善。彌陀如來御彼安養 引三輩而導生。斯等權迹不可具陳矣。

Returning to the origin of great enlightenment, we accumulate merit, yet caught in the flow of the long dream, we cannot suddenly awaken. Therefore the sages appear in the world, sometimes distantly, sometimes near. Their teachings sometimes take the form of praise and sometimes censure. The greatest examples are like those provided by Śākyamuni, who appeared in this corrupt world to warn against the five sins 5 and encourage people toward goodness. Or Amitâbha Tathāgata, who steers living beings to paradise, drawing the three classes of religious aspirants 6 into rebirth in his Pure Land. The great extent of these kinds of expedient teachings defies full explanation.

今此經者、蓋是菩薩藏教之格言、佛土因 果之眞典也。明願行之密深、現果德之長遠。十八圓淨越三界而迢絕。五根相好 侔六天而不嗣。珍香 7 法味 遂養身心、誰有朝餓夜渴之苦。

Now this sūtra covers the wise sayings of the bodhisattva corpus of teachings: it is the true account of the causes and effects of [being born in] the Buddha-land. It clarifies the mysterious profundity of the enactment of vows; it manifests the great endurance of the fruits and their merits. The eighteen kinds of perfect purity 8 transcend the three realms, and go far beyond. Those who possess the excellent characteristics of the five wholesome roots 9 match to the six heavens 10 without subordinating to them. With rare aroma and the taste of the Dharma nourishing mind and body—who could suffer from morning hunger and evening thirst?

玉林芳風溫涼常適、本無冬寒夏熱之煩。 群仙浴八德蓮池。由是長別偏可厭之皓皺。勝侶相從數遊十方佛土。於茲遠送 以 難慰之憂勞。況復聞法響入無相、見佛光悟無生。悟無生故無所不生。入無相故 無所不相。極淨極樂、非心意之所度。無際無限、豈言說之能盡。但以能說五人 之中佛爲上首。依正二報之內 長命爲主。故言佛說無量壽經。

In the jeweled forest fragrant winds always waft pleasantly warm and cool, and no one has ever suffered from the winter cold or summer heat. When the crowds of sages gather to meet, they bathe in the lotus pond of the eight attributes. 11 From this they have long avoided ugly white hair and wrinkles. Excellent companions follow one another, coursing multiple times in the Buddha-lands of the ten directions. Here they are greatly removed from their inconsolable pain and suffering, but how much more wonderful it is to hear the echo of the dharma and enter into signlessness—or to see the Buddha's radiance and awaken to nonarising! Since you awaken to non-arising, there is nothing that is not produced. Since you enter into signlessness, there is nothing that is not signified. 12 [This land is] extremely pure, and extremely joyful—it is not something that can be measured by conceptualization. Being without limit and without end, how could it ever be said to be exhaustible? However, among the five people capable of explaining it, the Buddha is number one. Among the two kinds of retribution of direct and circumstantial, 13 longevity is most important. Hence it is called “The Sūtra of [the Buddha of] Immeasurable Life, Spoken by the Buddha.”

設其一軸不足開心、若至其三有餘兩掌、 今此經者有上有下。無缺無餘。適爲掌珍、言之卷上。故言道佛說無量壽經卷上

Since the one scroll does not suffice to awaken people, and since three would be too many to hold in two hands, this sūtra has exactly one prior and one latter section, and thus there is nothing missing, and nothing in excess. Appropriately, as a treasure in the hand, it is called the first scroll. Therefore, it is called “The First Scroll of the Sūtra [of the Buddha] of Immeasurable Life, Explained by the Buddha.”

II. Underscoring the Distinctive Tenets

第二簡宗體者。此經正以淨土因果爲其宗體、攝物往生以爲意致。總標雖然於中分別者。先明果德後顯因行。果德之內略有四門。一淨不淨門、二色無色門、三共不共門、 四漏無漏門。

A. The Effects of the Pure Land

This sūtra properly takes the causes and effects of [rebirth in] the Pure Land as the substance of its doctrine and the gathering of sentient beings and leading them to rebirth [in the Pure Land] as its objective. Yet although this it its overall purpose, there are specific matters that are treated. First it clarifies the resultant virtues, and afterward it discloses the causal practices. The resultant virtues are broken down into four aspects: (1) the aspects of purity and impurity, (2) the aspects of form and formlessness, (3) the aspects of commonality and distinction, (4) the aspects of tainted and untainted.

1. Aspects of Purity and Impurity

第一明淨不淨門者。略以四對。顯其階降。 謂因與果相對故。一向與不一向相對故。純與雜相對故。正定與非正定相對故。

This section is broken down into four levels of pairs in descending order, as follows: the contrast between cause and effect, the contrast between thoroughness and non-thoroughness, the contrast between purity and pollution, and the contrast between correct determination and incorrect determination.

a. The Perspective of the Contrast between Cause and Effect

所言因與果相對門者。謂金剛以還菩薩所 住名果報土、不名淨土。未離苦諦之果患故。唯佛所居乃名淨土、一切勞患無餘 滅故。依此義故仁王經云。三賢十聖住果報唯佛一人居淨土。一切衆生蹔住報 登 金剛源居淨土。

The so-called realm of reward that is the abode of bodhisattvas at the adamantine stage 14 and below is called the Reward Land, and is not called the Pure Land. This is because the bodhisattvas have not yet freed themselves from the painful effects of the truth of suffering. Only the abode of the Buddha is called the Pure Land, because all pain and distress have been extinguished without remainder. Based on this idea, the Sūtra for Humane Kings says:

Those in the three ranks of worthies 15 and the ten stages of the holy ones and ten stages of sages 16 abide in retribution. The Buddha alone abides in the Pure Land.

All sentient beings temporarily abide in retribution, and ascending to the adamantine fount, they abide in the Pure Land. 17 The Perspective of the Contrast between Thoroughness and Non-Thoroughness

第二一向與不一向相對門者。謂八地以上 菩薩住處、得名淨土。以一向出三界事故。亦具四句一向義故。七地以還一切住 處。未名淨土。以非一向出三界故。或乘願力出三界者。一向四句不具足故。謂 一向淨、一向樂、一向無失、一向自在。七地以還出觀之時。或時生起報無記心。 末那四惑于時現行。故、非一向淨。非一向無失。八地以上卽不如是。

The abodes of bodhisattvas at the eighth ground and above can be called the Pure Land, because they thoroughly escape from the affairs of the three realms and because they satisfy the four conditions of the meaning of thoroughness. The abodes of bodhisattvas at the seventh ground and below are not called the Pure Land, because they do not thoroughly escape from the three realms. Some avail themselves of the power of their vow to escape the three realms because they have not satisfied the four conditions of thoroughness: thorough purity, thorough joy, thorough infallibility, and thorough sovereignty. When one emerges from meditation while in the seventh ground and below, one sometimes produces the retribution of morally indeterminate thought, at which time the four afflictions of the manas 18 occasionally manifest. Hence, purity is not thorough, and one is not perfectly free from error. This is not the case at the levels of the eighth ground and above.

依此義故。攝大乘云。「出出世善法功能所生起。釋曰。二乘善名出世。從八地以上、 乃至佛地。名出出世。出世法、名世法對治。出出世法、爲出世法對治、功能以 四緣爲相。從出出世善法功能、生起此淨土故、不以集諦爲因。 」 乃至廣說故。

Expressing this same theme, the Compendium of the Great Vehicle says: “Produced by the efficacy of wholesome dharmas that transcend the supramundane. ”

The commentary says:

The wholesomeness of the two vehicles is called the supramundane. From the eighth ground up to the Buddha-stage is said to be transcendence of the supramundane. Supramundane dharmas are said to counteract mundane dharmas. Dharmas that transcend the supramundane counteract supramundane dharmas. They are effective in the form of the four kinds of causation. 19 Since this Pure Land is produced through the efficacy of the wholesome factors that transcend the supramundane, it does not have the truth of arising as cause. 20

And so forth. The Perspective of the Contrast between Purity and Pollution

第三純與雜相對門者。凡夫二乘雜居之處、 不得名爲淸淨世界。唯入大地菩薩生處、乃得名爲淸淨世界。彼非純淨、 此純淨 故、依此義故。瑜伽論言。

世界無量 有其二種、謂淨不淨。淸淨世界 中、無那落迦、 傍生餓鬼、亦無欲界色無色界。純菩薩衆於中止住、是故說名淸 淨世界。已入第三地菩薩 由願力故、於彼受生 無有異生及非異生聲聞獨覺。若 非異生菩薩得生於彼。

The world of daily hustle and bustle of worldlings and adherents of the two vehicles cannot be called pure worlds. Only when one is born into the higher-level grounds (i.e., the eighth ground and above) can it be called a pure world. This is because the former world is impure, and the latter one is pure. Based on this meaning, the Yogâcārabhūmi-śāstra says:

“Worlds are innumerable” refers to the two kinds, which are called the pure and the impure. Within the pure worlds, there are no hells, animals, or hungry ghosts; also no desire realm, form realm, or formless realm. Hosts of pure bodhisattvas abide here, and therefore they are called pure worlds. Bodhisattvas who have entered the third ground undergo birth here based on the power of their vow. There are no unenlightened persons, or non-unenlightened śrāvakas or pratyekabuddhas. If one is not an unenlightened bodhisattva, he can be born there. 21

解云。此第三地是歡喜地。以就七種菩薩 地門、第三淨勝意樂地故。攝十三位。立七種地。具如彼論之所說故。

Explanation: The third ground referred to here is the ground of bliss. Since this is being treated from the perspective of the seven bodhisattva grounds (as distinguished from the better-known ten grounds), it is the third stage known as the ground of pure superior intent. The seven bodhisattva grounds are established as part of the thirteen stages—both of which are explained in the Yogâcārabhūmi-śāstra. 22 The Perspective of the Contrast between Correct Determination and Incorrect Determination

第四正定與非正定相對門者。三聚衆生苦 生之地、是爲穢土。唯正定聚所居之處、名爲淨土。於中亦有四果聲聞 乃至復有 四疑凡夫。唯無邪定及不定聚耳。今此經說無量壽國、就第四門說爲淨土。所以 然者、 爲欲普容大小 兼引凡聖竝勝處、同趣大道故。如下文言。設我得佛、國 中人民、 23 不住正定聚必至滅度者、不取正覺。

The ground that produces the suffering experienced by the three classes of sentient beings 24 is a defiled land. Only the place where the correctly determined class abides is called the Pure Land. Herein there are also śrāvakas in the four stages of realization, 25 as well as sentient beings who hold the four doubts. 26 The only ones not included are those of the class determined for evil and those of the undetermined class. Now when this sūtra teaches about the land of Amitâyus, it is explained as being a Pure Land from this fourth perspective [of contrast between correct and incorrect determination]. Why? It is done in order to broadly include great and small [vehicles], to draw the unenlightened and the enlightened to the same excellent place—to have them arrive to the same great Way. As a sentence in the sūtra says: “If, when I attain Buddhahood, humans and devas in my land should not dwell in the definitely assured state and unfailingly reach nirvāṇa, may I not attain perfect enlightenment.” 27

又言。設我得佛、 國中聲聞有能計量知 其數者 不取正覺。 乃至廣說。又觀經中說。 「生彼國已、得羅漢果等。」乃至廣說故。論說云。 「女人及根缺。二乘種不生者。 」是說決定種性二乘、非謂不定根性聲聞。爲簡 此故、名二乘種。由是義故不相違也。

It also says: “If, when I attain Buddhahood, the number of the śrāvakas in my land could be known. . .may I not attain perfect enlightenment.” 28 The Contemplation Sūtra says that after being born in his land, one can attain the realization of arhat and so forth. 29 The [Sukhāvatīvyūha-]Upadeśa says: “Women and the handicapped // as well as those with the seed of the two vehicles, are not reborn [in the Pure Land.” 30 Here, the two vehicle adherents being referred to are people with fixed religious capacity, and thus this does not refer to direct disciples (śrāvakas) who are of indeterminate religious capacity. To emphasize this point, the text specifies seed of the two vehicles [rather than actual two vehicles]. Understood in this way, there is no discrepancy [as to whether or not śrāvakas are born into the Pure Land].

又言女人及根缺者、謂生彼時非女非根缺耳。 非此女等不得往生。如韋提希而得生故。然鼓音王陀羅尼經云。阿彌陀佛。父名 月上轉輪聖王。其母名曰殊勝妙顏 31 等。乃至廣說者。是說化佛所居化土。論所 說者。是受用土。由是道理。故不相違。

Also, when the text says “women and the handicapped,” this means that when they are born there, they are not women, and they are not handicapped! Unless they are this woman's level, they cannot be reborn there. This is like the case of Vaidehi obtaining rebirth in the Pure Land. 32 Yet the Dhāraṇī Sūtra of the King of the Sound of [Amitâbha's] Drum says: “Amitâbha's father was called The Wheel-Turning Sage King above the Moon, and his mother was called Sublimely Beautiful Face, etc.” 33 [the sūtra continues to elaborate in detail]. This explanation refers to the case of a transformation buddha living in a transformation land. The case referred to by the Upadeśa is that of an enjoyment land. 34 Understood through this reasoning, there is no discrepancy.

上來四門所說淨土皆是如來願行所成。非 生彼者自力所辦。不如穢土外器世界、唯由衆生共業所成。是故通名淸淨土也。

The pure lands that are explained in the above four different approaches are all formed based on the enactment of the vows of the Tathāgata. It is not the case that they are produced based on the practitioners' own power. And it is not like the case of the defiled lands of the external, container world, which are formed exclusively by the shared karma of sentient beings. Therefore they are generally termed “pure lands.” The Perspective of the Contrast between Form and Formlessness

次第二 明有色無色門者。如前所說四種 門中。初一門顯自受用土。後三門說他受用土。三門有色不待言論。自受用土、 說者不同。或有 35 說者、「自受用身 遠離色形、 法性淨土 爲所住處、是故都無色相可得。」

As in the prior section, we approach the explanation of this topic in four ways. In the first part, we clarify the situation of the land of self-enjoyment. The latter three parts deal with the land of other-enjoyment. 36 The [question of the] materiality of these three realms does not require explanation. There are various theories concerning the land of self-enjoyment. Some say: “The self-enjoyment body is distantly removed from color and shape, since, given the fact that its abode is the Pure Land of the essential nature of reality, it is impossible for there to be any material characteristics.” 37

如本業經說。「 佛子。果體圓滿。無德不備、理無不周、居中道第一義諦。淸淨國土、無極、無 名、無相、非一切法可得。非有體、非無體。」乃至廣說。

As the Sūtra of Former Activities says: “Disciples of the Buddha, the substance of the realization is perfectly complete. There is no attribute not included, no principle that is not operative; one abides in the cardinal truth of the middle way. This pure land has no limit, no names, and no signs: it is inapprehensible through any phenomenon. It neither has an essence, nor lacks an essence.” 38 and so forth.

起信論云。「諸 佛如來 唯是法身智相之身、第一義諦。無有世諦境界、離於施作。但、隨衆生見 聞皆得益、故說爲用、此用有二種。一者凡夫二乘心所見者、名爲應身。二者諸 菩薩從初發意、乃至菩薩究竟地。心所見者。名爲報身。」依此等文。當 知所見有色相等、皆得他受用身。說自受用中無色無相也。

The Awakening of Faith says:

Buddha-Tathāgatas have only this dharma-body, which is the embodiment of wisdom—of the cardinal truth. It has nothing to do with the world of conventional truths, or such a thing as “doing.” However, since sentient beings gain benefit from seeing and hearing this body, it is said to be “enjoyment,” and this enjoyment is distinguished into two types. The first is the body perceived by the minds of worldlings and adherents of the two vehicles, which is called the response-body. The second is that seen by the minds of bodhisattvas from the level of the first arousal of intention up the final stage, which is called the reward-body. 39

Based on such passages we should understand that all visible material marks are grasped in the body for other-enjoyment. It is explained that within the self-enjoyment body there are neither form nor marks.

或有說者、自受用身 有無障礙微妙之色。 其所依土 具有六塵殊勝境界。如薩遮尼乾子經云。「瞿 曇法性身。妙色常湛然。如是法性身。衆生等無邊差。」

There are some who say that the self-enjoyment body possesses subtle, non-obstructing form, and with this as a basis it is endowed with the marvelous objects of the six sense spheres. As the Mahāsatya-nirgrantha-sūtra says:

Gautama's dharma-nature body

Is of subtle form, 40 always still.

. . .

This kind of dharma-nature body

Is something not different from sentient beings. 41

華嚴經云。「如 來正覺成菩提時、得一切衆生等身、得一切法等身、乃至得一切行界等身、 得寂 靜涅槃界等身。佛子、隨如來所得身、當知音聲及無礙心 亦復如是。如來具足如 是三種淸淨無量。」

The Flower Ornament Sūtra says:

When a completely enlightened Tathāgata attains enlightenment, he attains a body the same as that of all sentient-beings, he attains a body the same as that of all dharmas. . .up to attaining a body the same as all karmic formations, and attaining a body the same as the realm of quiescent nirvāṇa. My disciples, you should understand that according to the body he attains, the sounds and the unobstructed minds [to which he has access] are in the same way [innumerable]. The Tathāgata is fully endowed limitlessly with three kinds of purity [of body, sound, and mind]. 42

攝大乘云。「若 淨土中 無諸怖畏、六根所受用法悉具有。」又、「非唯是有。一切所受用具、最勝無等。是如來福德、智慧、行 圓滿因所感。如來勝報依止此處。是故最勝。」依此等文當知圓滿因之所 感 自受用身 依止六塵也。

The Mahāyānasaṃgraha(-bhāṣya) says: “If one is fearless in the Pure Land, one will be fully endowed with all the objects enjoyed by the six faculties.” Furthermore, “Not only will one possess these: one will possess all enjoyable things, excellent without peer. These include all that is experienced through the consummation of the Tathāgata's causes of merit, wisdom, and practices. The Tathāgata's excellent rewards are based in this. Hence, they are the most excellent.” 43

Based on these passages we should understand that the body of self-enjoyment that is received as the effect of perfectly completed causes is based on the six sense fields.

或有說者二師所說皆有道理。等有經論 不可違故、如來法門無障礙故。

Some say each of the theories of these two scholars [i.e., those who say that the self-enjoyment has no material manifestation and those who say it does] is based on valid reasoning because it is not inconsistent with what is written in the sūtras and śāstras and does not controvert the Tathāgata's doctrinal approach.

所以然者。報佛身土略有二門。若就遣 44 相歸源之門、如初師說。若依從性成德之門、如後師說。所引經論隨門而說、故 不相違。此是第二色無色門也。

How so? There are, briefly stated, two approaches to interpreting the response-body land. One is that of erasing signs and returning to the source; this is the approach of the first scholar. The other is of attributes taking form issuing from one's nature; this is the approach of the second scholar. The sūtras and treatises that are cited each approach the matter from their own perspective. Therefore there is no discrepancy between the two scholars. This [completes the explanation] of the second approach—that of the contrast between form and formlessness.

3. Aspect of Contrast between Commonality and Distinction

次第三。明共不共門者。通相而言 土有 二種。一者內土、二者外土。言外土者 是共果。言內土者是不共果。內土之中 亦有二種。一者衆生五陰 爲正報土。人所依住 故名爲土。二者出世聖智 名實智 土。以能住持後得智故。依根本智。離顚倒故。如本業經云。

In terms of their general characteristics, there are two kinds of lands: internal lands and external lands. External lands exist as shared fruition. Internal lands exist as unshared fruition. Within the category of internal lands there are two further types. The first is that of the five aggregates of sentient beings, which are lands of direct retribution. 45 These are the bases for human existence, hence they are called “lands.” The second are those of supramundane holy wisdom, which are called lands of true wisdom. This is because the saints are able [on the basis of these] to maintain subsequently attained wisdom. 46 This is due to the freedom from cognitive distortion based on innate wisdom. As the Sūtra of Former Activities says:

「土名一切賢聖所 居之處。是故一切衆生賢聖各自居果報之土。若凡夫衆生 住五陰中爲正報之土。 山林大地共有 爲依報之土。初地聖人 亦有二土。一實智土。前智住後智爲土。 二變化淨穢。逕劫數量 應現之土。乃至無垢地土亦復如是。一切衆生乃至無垢地 盡非淨土 住果報故。」

“Land” is the name for the place where all noble ones 47 reside. Therefore it is the land in which all sentient beings and noble ones abide appropriate to their own retribution. In the case of unenlightened sentient beings, they abide in the five aggregates, which serve as their land of direct retribution. Mountains, forests, and other geographical features, which are experienced in common, serve as the land of circumstantial retribution. 48 Noble ones at the level of the first ground 49 also have two kinds of lands. One is the land of true wisdom, wherein a priori wisdom abides in a posteriori wisdom as its land. The second is the land of transformation of purity and defilement, where they manifest responsively passing through countless eons. This is also the case for the land in the level of the undefiled ground (second bhūmi). No sentient beings, nor noble ones up to the stage of the undefiled ground, create pure lands. This is because they abide in karmic retribution. 50

總說雖然、於中分別者。正報之土 不共 果義 更無異說。依報之土 爲共果者 諸說不同。

Although the matter of retribution can be broadly characterized like this, there are specific cases that can be distinguished. There are no competing explanations about lands of direct retribution having the connotation of being distinct effects. But concerning the connotation of lands of circumstantial retribution as being shared effects, there are various interpretations.

或有說者、如山河等非是極微合成、實有 一體 多因共感。直是有情 異成各變 同處相似 不相障礙。如衆燈明、如多因所 夢。因類是同 果相相似 處所無別。假名爲共、實各有異。諸佛淨土當知亦爾。 若別識變 皆遍法界、同處相似 說名爲共。

One interpretation holds that such natural phenomena as mountains and rivers are

not molecular compositions, and actually all part of a single essence, in which various causes are experienced in common. They are instead nothing but variant compositions and individual transformations occurring in the same space, resembling each other, without mutual obstruction. It is like the case of the lights of many lamps or a dream with many causal factors. The causes, being the same in type, result in effects that have similar characteristics and are not distinguished in terms of place. While provisionally said to be shared, in fact the [effects that are created] are each different from one another. The various pure lands of the buddhas should be understood in the same way. When distinct transformations of consciousness all penetrate throughout the experiential realm, resembling each other in the same place, they are said to be shared. 51

實非共也。若有一土非隨識別者、卽成心 外、非唯識理。如解深密經云。「我說識所緣 唯識所現 故」。唯識論云。「業熏習識內、 執果生於外。 何因熏習處 於中不說果。」

But in reality, they are not shared. If there were a land that was not something discriminated according to consciousness and thus took form outside the mind, this would be contrary to the principle of Consciousness-only. As the Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra says: “I teach that the referents of cognition are only the transformations of consciousness.” 52 The *Viṃśatikākārikā says:

Karma perfumes within consciousness,

But its fruits are imagined to be produced on the outside.

Why is it that the fruits

Are not explained as occurring in the same place as their perfuming? 53

或有說者、淨土依果 雖不離識 而識是別。 土相是一、由彼別識共所成故。如攬四塵以成一柱。一柱之相不離四微。非隨四 微 成四柱故。當知此中道理亦爾。

There is another interpretation wherein it is argued that even though pure lands as circumstantial retribution are not separate from consciousness, consciousness is separately distinguished. The characteristics of the particular land are the same, but this is because they are formed as the shared product of these separate consciousnesses. It is like a pillar that is formed out of the four data-fields. 54 While the characteristics of the pillar cannot be separated from the four elements, it is not the case that four [different] pillars are formed according to [each of] the four elements. The principle being expressed here should be understood in the same way. 55

於中若就自受用土、 佛與諸佛共有一土、 猶如法身 諸佛共依故。若論他受用土相者、佛與諸菩薩等共有、如王與臣共有一 國故。又二受用土 亦非別體。如觀行者 觀石爲玉。無通慧者 猶見是石。石玉相 異 而非別體。二土同處 當知亦爾。

[With the same interpretative approach in mind,] if we look at it from the perspective of lands of self-enjoyment, the Buddha and all buddhas share the same land, just as all buddhas share in having the dharma-body as their basis. If we look at it from the perspective of lands of other-enjoyment, the Buddha also shares with the bodhisattvas and so forth, the same way that a king and his vassals share the same country. Additionally, these two enjoyment lands are in essence not separate things. It is like a meditator visualizing a stone to be a gem. Lacking insight, one would merely see a stone. Yet while stones and gems have different characteristics, they are not different in essence. Two lands sharing the same area can be understood like this.

如解深密經云。如來所行如來境界、此何 差別。佛言、 如來所行謂一切種、如來共有無量功德衆莊嚴淸淨佛土。如來境界 謂一切種、五界差別。所謂有情界、世界、法界、調伏界、調伏方便界。

As the Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra says:

What kinds of distinctions are there within the activities and the spheres of the tathāgatas? The Buddha said: “The tathāgatas' activities are said to be of all types. The tathāgatas share in countless virtues and a myriad magnificent pure Buddha-lands. The tathāgatas' spheres, which are said to be of all kinds, are categorized into five. They are the sentient sphere, the receptacle sphere, the dharma sphere, the sphere [of sentient beings] brought under submission, and the sphere of the skillful means for bringing [sentient beings] under submission.” 56

解云。此說自受用土 諸佛共有、 非各別也。 瑜伽論云。

Note: This explains that self-enjoyment lands are shared by all buddhas and do not exist separately. As the Yogâcārabhūmi-śāstra says:

相等諸物、或由不共分別爲因、或復由共 分別爲因。若共分別之所起者、分別雖無、由他分別所住持故、而不永滅。若不 爾者、他之分別 應無其果。彼雖不滅、 得淸淨者。於彼事中、正見淸淨。譬如 衆多修觀行者、於一事中、由定心故、種種異見可得。彼亦如是。

[In the case of] marks [names, things] and such phenomena, some are caused by unshared discrimination, and some are caused by shared discrimination. In the case of those produced by shared discrimination, even when there is no discrimination, they are maintained by the discriminations of others, and therefore do not disappear. If this were not the case, the discriminations of others would not generate their own effects. Even if they do not disappear, one can become purified, and in the midst of one's affairs, properly see purity. It is like the case of a number of meditators, who, based on their mental focus on one thing, can see it in various ways. This is the same kind of case. 57

解云。此說依報 不隨識別。若執共果隨 識異者、我果雖滅他果猶存。卽他分別 不應無異。故彼不能通此文也。

Note: This shows how circumstantial rewards are not distinguished according to specific forms of consciousness. If we attach to the position that shared effects differ according to the form of consciousness, even though my own effects disappear, the effects of others should still remain. Hence the discriminations of others cannot but be different. Therefore that explanation does not serve to interpret this passage.

攝大乘論云。復次 受用如是淨土、一向 淨、一向樂、一向無失、一向自在。釋曰。恆無雜穢、故言一向淨。但受妙樂、 無苦無捨、故言一向樂。唯是實善、 無惡無記、故言一向無失。一切事悉不觀餘 緣、 皆由自心成故、言一向自在。復次、依大淨說一向淨。依大樂說一向樂。依 大常說一向無失。依大我說一向自在。

The Compendium of the Great Vehicle says:

Furthermore, [one,] in enjoying this Pure Land [does so because of] being thoroughly pure, thoroughly happy, thoroughly faultless, and thoroughly unimpeded.

Explanation: Always unpolluted, one is said to be thoroughly pure. Experiencing nothing but marvelous joy, without suffering or indifference, one is said to be thoroughly happy. Engaged in nothing but wholesome behavior, doing nothing of evil or indeterminate moral quality, one is said to be thoroughly faultless. In all affairs, utterly unaffected by peripheral conditions, in every case completing things according to one's own intention, one is said to be thoroughly unimpeded. Furthermore, thorough purity is explained based on great purity; thorough happiness is explained based on great happiness; thorough faultlessness is explained based on great constancy; thorough unimpededness is explained based on the great self. 58

解云。此中初復次 顯他受用義。後復次 顯自受用義。義雖不同 而無別土、所以本論 唯作一說。故知二土亦非別體也。 問。如是二說。何得何失。答曰。如若言取 但不成立。以義會之 皆有道理。此 是第三共不共門也。

Note: The text after the first “furthermore” explains the connotations of the [land of] enjoyment of others. The text after the second “furthermore” explains the connotations of the [land of] self-enjoyment. Although the connotations are not the same, they are not separate lands, and so based on the theory of that text there is only a single explanation. Hence we can again know that the two lands do not differ in essence.

Question: Which of these two theories is valid and which is fallacious?

Answer: If one is attached to the words, neither can be established. If one grasps them in terms of their [underlying] meaning, each has a valid line of reasoning. This ends the third section which treats the matter from the perspective of contrast between commonality and distinction.

4. The Perspective of the Contrast between Contamination and Decontamination

次第四。明漏無漏門者、略有二句。一者通 就諸法、顯漏無漏義。二者別約淨土 明漏無漏相。

The aspect of contamination and decontamination will be addressed from two basic perspectives. The first is the disclosure of the connotations of contamination and decontamination from the general perspective of phenomena. The second is the clarification of the marks of contamination and decontamination from the specific perspective of pure lands. The General Perspective of Phenomena Five approaches of contamination and decontamination

初通門者。瑜伽論說。有漏無漏 各有五 門。有漏五者。一由事故、二隨眠故、三相應故、四所緣故、五生起故。無漏五 者。一離諸纏故、二隨眠斷故、三是斷滅故、 四見所斷之對治自性相續解脫故、 五修所斷之對治自性相續解脫故。於中委悉。如彼廣說。

As the Yogâcārabhūmi-śāstra says:

There are five ways each to contamination and decontamination. The ways to contamination are (1) through actual events, (2) through latency, (3) through association, (4) through referents, and (5) through direct production. The five ways to decontamination are (1) through riddance of active afflictions, (2) through the elimination of latent afflictions, (3) through the destruction of [phenomenal bases], (4) through the liberation from the continuity of [the mistaken notion of] self-nature [of the mind stream] that occurs through the countering of afflictions in the Path of Seeing, (5) through the liberation from the continuity of [the mistaken notion of] self-nature [of the mind stream] that occurs through the countering of afflictions in the Path of Cultivation. 59

In the source text this is explained in much fuller detail, so one should consult there for a fuller understanding. 60 Four categories of contamination and decontamination

今作四句。略顯其相。一者有法 一向有漏。謂諸染 汚心心所法等。由相應義 是有漏故、而無五種無漏相故。二者有法一向無漏。謂見道時 心 心所法等。由有自性解脫義故 而無五種有漏相故。三者有法亦有漏、亦無漏。謂報無記心心 所法等。隨眠所縛故、諸纏所離故。雖復無漏 而是苦諦。由業煩惱所生起故。四者有法 非 有漏、非無漏。 61 謂甚深法不墮數故。

There are four kinds of relationships of contamination and decontamination: (1) Existent phenomena are thoroughly contaminated. This refers to all defiled minds and mental factors and so forth. They are associated through their association with each other, and contain none of the five kinds of aspects of decontamination. (2) Existent phenomena are thoroughly decontaminated. This refers to all minds and mental factors at the stage of the Path of Insight. This is because they are liberated from self-nature while lacking any sign of the five kinds of contamination. (3) Some existent phenomena are contaminated, and some are decontaminated. This refers to minds and mental factors and so forth whose quality of moral retribution is indeterminate. This is because they are bound to latent afflictions but are free from active afflictions. Even though they are not further contaminated, they are still subject to the truth of suffering, based on the fact that they are produced by karmic afflictions. (4) Existent phenomena are neither contaminated nor not contaminated. This means that the extremely profound dharma does not fall into this category. Two approaches: delimitation and non-obstruction

亦有二門。一有分際門。二無障礙門。 The Approach of Delimitation

次別明中 有分際門者。若就諸佛所居淨土、 於四句 中 唯有二句。依有色有心門卽一向是無漏。自性相續解脫義故、遠離五種有漏相故。若就非 色非心門者、卽非有漏、亦非無漏。非有非無故、 離相離性故。

There are two further aspects: the first is that of delimitation, and the second is that of non-obstruction. From the perspective of the pure lands that are home to the buddhas, among the four distinctions outlined above, only two are applicable. In the case of the existence of mental and material [factors], [the land] is thoroughly decontaminated. This is because they are liberated from the continuity of [the mistaken notion of] self-nature [of the mind stream], and because they are fully removed from the five kinds of characteristics of contamination. In the case of the existence of neither material nor mental [factors], then [the land] is neither contaminated nor uncontaminated. This is because it is neither existent nor non-existent and because they are free from both characteristics and nature.

若就菩薩亦有二句。恰論二智 所顯淨土一向無漏、 道諦所攝。如攝論說。菩薩及如來唯識智、無相無功用、故言淸淨。離一切障 無有退失故言 自在。此唯識智 爲淨土體故、 不以苦諦爲體。乃至廣說故。

There are also two approaches in the case of bodhisattvas. If we discuss the pure lands that are manifested by the two kinds of wisdom, then they are thoroughly uncontaminated, being subsumed under the Truth of the Path. As the Mahāyānasaṃgraha says: “The wisdom of Consciousness-only that is used by the bodhisattvas and tathāgatas is markless and functions without exertion. Hence it is said to be pure. It is free from all hindrances, and has no deficiencies. Therefore it is said to be unimpeded. Since this wisdom of Consciousness-only is the essence of the Pure Land, it cannot serve as the essence for the Truth of Suffering.” 62 The discussion continues at length.

/>若就本識所變之門、亦是無漏。以非三界有漏所 起、樂無漏界、故是無漏。無明住地爲緣出故、 名果報土、故是有漏。雖亦無漏而是世間。 故於無作四諦門內、苦諦果報之所攝也。如經言、 三賢十聖住報故。

From the perspective of the transformations of the root consciousness, they are also uncontaminated. Since they are not the products of the contamination of the three realms, one enjoys uncontaminated realms and therefore is uncontaminated. When they are produced with the nescience entrenchments 63 as their referent, they are called retribution lands, and hence they are contaminated. Even though they have an uncontaminated aspect, they are nonetheless mundane. Therefore they are considered to be a form of retribution that is subsumed within the category of truth of suffering among the Four Unconditioned Noble Truths. 64 As the Sūtra [for Humane Kings] says: “The three ranks of worthies and the ten ranks of sages abide in retribution. ” 65

寶性論云。依無漏界中、有三種意生身。 應知 彼因無漏善根所作名爲世間。以離有漏諸業煩惱所作世間法故、 亦名涅槃。 依此義故勝鬘經言。世尊。有有爲世間、有無爲世間。有有爲涅槃、有無爲涅槃。

The Ratnagotravibhāga says:

Based within uncontaminated realms, there are three kinds of mind-made bodies. It should be understood that that which is produced based on their uncontaminated wholesome roots is called the mundane world. Since they are free from the mundane factors produced by the afflictions of contaminated karma, it is also called nirvāṇa. Based on this reasoning the Śrīmālā-sūtra says: “World Honored One, there are conditioned mundane worlds and unconditioned mundane worlds; there is conditioned nirvāṇa and unconditioned nirvāṇa.” 66

故此中說意生身、乃是梨耶所變正報。正報旣爾、依報 亦然。同是本識所變作故。然此梨耶所變之土、及與二智所現淨土。雖爲苦道二諦所攝、而 無別體。隨義異攝耳。如他分別所持穢土、得淸淨者卽見爲淨。淨穢雖異、 而無別體。當知 此中二義亦爾。此約有分際門說也。

Therefore the mind-made bodies spoken of here are none other than direct forms of retribution transformed by the ālayavijñāna. Their direct retribution being like this, their circumstantial retribution is the same, since they are also created as transformations out of the root consciousness. Yet these lands that are produced as transformations from the ālayavijñāna are also the pure lands manifested by the two kinds of wisdom. Even though they are included in the two Truths of Suffering and the Path, they are essentially not different; they are included in a different category according to their connotations. It's like a land that someone else discriminates as being defiled; one who has been purified sees it as pure. Even though purity and defilement are different, [the land in question] does not differ in essence. We should understand the two meanings being presented here in the same way. This ends the discussion from the perspective of delimitation. The Approach of Non-Obstruction


The approach of non-obstruction is also carried out from four perspectives.

一者諸佛身土 皆是有漏、不離一切諸漏 故。如經說言。諸佛安住三毒四漏等。一切煩惱中得阿耨菩提。乃至廣說故。

1. The pure lands of buddhas are all contaminated, because they are not free from all kinds of contamination. As a sūtra says: “The buddhas abide comfortably in the midst of the three poisons and four raging currents. They attain anuttarā-samyak-saṃbodhi in the midst of all afflictions.” 67 The text continues the discussion at length.

二者。凡夫身土皆是無漏。以離一切諸漏性故。如經 說言。色無漏無繫。受想行識、無漏無繫。乃至廣說故。

2. The lands of worldling bodies are all uncontaminated. This is because they are free from all contaminated natures. As a sūtra says: “Form has no contamination and no binding [to negativity]. Feeling, perception, impulse, and consciousness also have no contamination and no binding [to negativity].” 68 The text continues the discussion at length.

三者。一切凡聖穢土淨土、亦是有漏 亦是無漏。以 前二門不相離故。

3. The defiled lands and pure lands of all worldlings and sages are contaminated as well as uncontaminated. This is because they are not dissociated from the two previous aspects.

四者。一切凡聖穢土淨土。非有漏、非無漏。以無縛 性及脫性故。如經說言。色無縛無脫。受想行識。無縛無脫。乃至廣說故。此是第四有漏無 漏門也。上來四門合爲第一淨土果竟。

4. The defiled and pure lands of all worldlings and sages are neither contaminated nor uncontaminated. This is because they have no nature of either binding or of liberating. As the [Prajñāpāramitā-]sūtra says: “Form has neither binding nor liberation. Feeling, perception, impulse, and consciousness have neither binding nor liberation.” 69 The text goes on in detail.

This ends the discussion from the fourth approach, that of the relationship of contamination and non-contamination. The above four parts serve to constitute the discussion of the first section, that of the effects of the pure land, which is concluded here.

B. Causes of the Pure Land

次第二明淨土因者。淨土之因 有其二途。一成辨因。二往生因。成 辨因者 說者不同。或有說者 本來無漏 法爾種子三無數劫修令增廣、爲此淨土變現生因。如 瑜伽論說。生那落迦、三無漏根 種子成就。以此准知 亦有無漏淨土種子。

The causes related to the Pure Land have two major dimensions. The first are the causes of production; the second are the causes of rebirth [into the Pure Land].

1. Causes of Production

There are various explanations of the causes of production [of pure lands]. One theory holds that originally existent uncontaminated seeds naturally develop and spread over the process of three incalculably long eons of practice, and these serve as the generative causes for the manifestation of this Pure Land. It is as the Yogâcārabhūmi-śāstra says: “Born into a hell, the seeds of the three uncontaminated faculties 70 reach completion.” 71 Based on this, we can surmise that there are also uncontaminated seeds [that generate] the Pure Land.

或有說者。二智所熏新生種子爲彼淨土而作生因。如 攝論說。從出出世善法功能、生起淨土。何者爲出出世善法。無分別智、無分別後得所生善 根。(名)爲出出世善法。

Another theory says that the newly produced seeds 72 that are perfumed by the two kinds of wisdom generate this Pure Land, serving as its generative causes. As the Compendium of the Great Vehicle says:

The Pure Land is produced from the function of supratransmundane wholesome factors. What are supratransmundane wholesome factors? They are the wholesome roots that are produced from the non-discriminating wisdom and the subsequently attained wisdom. These are [called] the supratransmundane wholesome factors. 73

是本有卽非所生。旣是所生、 當知新成。

In this case, the Pure Land is not produced by originally existent seeds. When the have been produced, they should be understood as having been produced from newly formed seeds. 74

問。如是二說。何者爲實。答。皆依聖典、有何不實。 於中委悉 如楞伽經料簡中說。

Question: Which one of these two theories [i.e., that the Pure Land is produced by originally existing seeds or by newly perfumed seeds] is correct?

Answer: Since both are based on scriptural authority, how could either one be inaccurate? The explanation of the matter is taken up in detail in my Extracts of the Laṅkâvatāra-sūtra. 75

2. Causes of Rebirth [into the Pure Land]

次明往生因者。凡諸所說往生之因、非直能感正報莊 嚴、亦得感具依報淨土。但承如來本願力故、隨感受用。非自業因力之所成辨。是故說無 76 往生因。此因之相、經論不同。

Generally speaking, those causes that bring about rebirth [in the Pure Land] are not only able to induce the adornments of direct retribution. They are also able to fully induce the Pure Land of circumstantial retribution. It is only by inheriting the power of the Tathāgata's original vow that they are able experience these things. It is not something that is produced by the causal energy of one's own karma. Therefore it is said that there are no [actual] causes for rebirth [into the Pure Land]. The [explanations of the] characteristics of this causation differ between the sūtras and the treatises.

若依觀經說十六觀。往生論中說五門行。今依此經 說三輩因。上輩之因。說有五句。一者、捨家棄欲而作沙門。此顯發起正因方便。二者、發 菩提心。是明正因。三者、專念彼佛。是明修觀。四者、作諸功德。是明起行。此觀及行爲 助滿業。五者、願生彼國。此一是願、前四是行。行願和合、乃得生故。

If we were to consult the Contemplation Sūtra we would cite the sixteen contemplations of Sukhāvatī. 77 In the Upadeśa it would be the five approaches to practice. 78 Here this sūtra explains the causes for rebirth in relation to the three classes of practitioners.

a. The Superior Class

The causes of the superior class are explained in five ways: (1) Abandoning home and desires, and becoming a monk or nun. This clarifies the skillful means for producing direct causes. (2) Giving rise to the aspiration for enlightenment. This clarifies a direct cause. (3) Single-mindedly focusing on that Buddha. This clarifies the practice of contemplation. (4) The creation of merit. This shows the initiation of practice. The contemplation and practice discussed here serve as supports for particularizing karma. (5) Vowing to be born in that land. This one is a vow, and the prior four are practices. When practices and vow merge together, one can be reborn.

中輩之中、說有四句。一者、 雖不能作沙門當發無 上菩提之心。是明正因。二者、專念彼佛。三者、多少修善。此觀及行爲助滿業。四者、願 生彼國。前行此願 和合爲因也。

b. The Middling Class

Within the middling class, there are four cases: (1) Gving rise to the mind of peerless enlightenment even though one is not able to become a monk or nun. This shows a direct cause. (2) Contemplating single-mindedly on that buddha. (3) Cultivating goodness to one extent or another. This contemplation and practice contribute to one's particularizing karma. (4) Vowing to be born in his land. When the prior practices and this vow are merged together they serve as causes [for rebirth in the Pure Land].

c. The Inferior Class

下輩之內、說二種人。二人之中、各有三句。初人三者、 一者、假使不能作諸功德、當發無上菩提之心。是明正因。二者、乃至十念、 專念彼佛。是 助滿業。三者、願生彼國。此願前行和合爲因。是明不定性人也。

Within the inferior class, there are two kinds of people. Within each of the two, there are three kinds of cases. The three cases of the first type of person are as follows: (1) Even if they are unable to create meritorious virtues, they will eventually give rise to the mind of peerless enlightenment. This shows a direct cause. (2) For up to ten recollections, they single-mindedly focus on that buddha. This contributes to their particularizing karma. (3) They vow to be born in his land. This vow and the prior practices combine to serve as causes. This explains the case of a person of indeterminate religious capacities.

第二人中有三句者。一者、聞甚深法 歡喜信樂。此 句兼顯發心正因。但爲異前人擧其深信耳。二者、乃至一念念於彼佛。是助滿業。爲顯前人 無深信故、必須十念。此人有深信故、未必具足十念。三者、以至誠心 願生彼國。此願前行 和合爲因。此就菩薩種性人也。經說如是。

There are also three cases describing the situation of the second person: (1) Hearing the profound dharma, one experiences joyful faith. This is the case of joining the principal cause and arousal of the determination for enlightenment. However, this person differs from the prior person in his arousal of profound faith. (2) For the period of one recollection he is able to be mindful of that Buddha. This is a support for particularizing karma. This is to show that since the prior person lacks profound faith, it was necessary for him to do ten recollections. Since this person has profound faith, it is not necessary for him to do a full ten recollections. (3) With perfect sincerity, they vow to be born in [the Buddha's] land. This vow, combined together with prior practices, becomes a cause. This is the perspective for a person who possesses the basic religious capacity to become a bodhisattva. This is the explanation according to this sūtra.


In the following section, I will briefly analyze the characteristics of their birth, for which there are two main categories. First I will explain that of direct causes, and then I will show that of auxiliary causes. Direct Causes

經所言正因、謂菩提心。言發無上菩提心者、不顧世 間富樂及與二乘涅槃。一向志願三身菩提、是名無上菩提之心。總標雖然、 於中有二。一者、 隨事發心。二者、順理發心。

What the text calls “direct cause” is “bodhi-mind.” This means the arousal of the aspiration for enlightenment, which has nothing to do with worldly prosperity and happiness, nor with the nirvāṇa of the two vehicles. A single-minded yearning for enlightenment of the three buddha-bodies—this is what is called the mind of perfect enlightenment. Generally stated, the situation is like this, but there are two different ways in which this state of mind is aroused. The first is giving rise to it by according with circumstances. The second is giving rise to it by attuning oneself to the principle. Arousing the aspiration by according with circumstances




善法無量、 願悉修之。


於此三事、決定期願。初是如來斷德正因。次是如來智德正因。第 三心者。恩德正因。

What is [arousing the aspiration by] according with circumstances?

Though afflictions may be countless, I vow to completely eliminate them.

Though wholesome factors may be immeasurable, I vow to fully cultivate them.

Though sentient beings may be limitless, I vow to save them all. 79

In these three circumstances, one makes a firm vow. The first is the direct cause of the Tathāgata's power of elimination [of affliction]. The second is the direct cause of the Tathāgata's power of wisdom. The third attitude is the direct cause of his power of compassion.

三德合爲無上菩提之果。卽是三心、總爲無上菩提之 因。因果雖異、 廣長量齊。等無所遺、無不苞故。如經言。發心畢竟二不別。如是二心前心 難。自未得度先度他。是故我禮初發心。

These three powers coalesce in the fruit known as perfect enlightenment. Thus, these three states of mind are understood in general to be the causes of perfect enlightenment. Even though the causes and their effects are different, they are equal in breadth, length, and amount. This is because there are none that are excluded and none that are not embraced. As the [Nirvāṇa-]sūtra says:

The arousal and the completion of the mind of enlightenment are not two;

Between the two, it is the prior state of mind that is more difficult.

Not yet having attained liberation for oneself, one first saves others;

Therefore I revere the initial state of arousal of the intention. 80

此心果報 雖是菩提、 而其華報 在於淨土。 所以然者。菩提心量 廣大無邊、長遠無限。故能感得廣大無際依報淨土、長遠無 量正報壽命。除菩提心、 無能當彼。故說此心爲彼正因。是明隨事發心相也。

Even though the fruit retribution of this mind is enlightenment, its flower retribution is birth in the Pure Land. 81 How so? The capacity of the enlightened mind is vast without end; it reaches far, without limit. Therefore it is able to induce vast and limitless pure lands of circumstantial retribution and distant numberless lifetimes of direct retribution. Without the mind of enlightenment, such things cannot be. Therefore it is said that this mind is the direct cause of those states. This clarifies the aspect of arousal of the mind of enlightenment by according with circumstances. Arousing the aspiration by attuning to the principle

所言順理而發心者。信解諸法皆如幻夢、 非有非無 離言絕慮。依此信解發廣大心。雖不見有煩惱善法、而不撥無可斷可修。 是故雖願悉斷悉修、而不違於無願三昧。雖願皆度無量有情。而不存能度所度。 故能順隨於空無相。如經言。「如是滅度無量衆生 實無 衆生 得滅度者。」乃至廣說故。如是發心不可思議。是明順理發心相也。

Having conviction that all phenomena are illusory and dreamlike, that they are neither existent nor non-existent, one is freed from language and severs thought. Based on this conviction, one produces the vast mind. Although one sees neither affliction nor wholesome factors, one does not deny that the former can be eliminated and that the latter can be cultivated. Therefore, although one vows to completely eliminate and fully cultivate, this is not different from the wishless samādhi. 82 And even though one vows to completely save countless sentient beings, one does not linger in the notions of “saver” and “saved.” Therefore one is able to attune oneself to markless emptiness. As a sūtra says: “When in this way, the Buddha saves numberless sentient beings, there are in fact no sentient beings whom he has saved. ” 83

And so forth. This kind of arousal of the mind of enlightenment is inconceivable. This concludes the clarification of arousing the aspiration for enlightenment by attunement to the principle.

隨事發心、有可退義、不定性人亦得能發。順理發心、 卽無退轉。菩薩性人乃能得發如是發心。功德無邊、設使諸佛窮劫演說彼諸功德、猶不能盡。 正因之相略說如是。

Practitioners who arouse the mind of enlightenment by according with circumstances are subject to retrogression; it is a method of arousal that can be done by persons of indeterminate religious capacity. Practitioners who arouse the mind of enlightenment through attunement principle do not retrogress; those with the bodhisattva nature are able to give rise to their intention in this way. Their merit has no limit, so even if the buddhas were to explain these merits for an entire eon, they would be unable to finish. This concludes the brief explanation of the aspects of direct causes.

b. Auxiliary Causes

次明助因。助因多種。今且明其下輩十念。此經中說 下輩十念。一言之內、 含有二義。謂顯了義及隱密義。隱密義者、 望第三對純淨土果、以 說下輩十念功德。

There many kinds of auxiliary causes. Here we will elaborate some of them through the ten recollections done by the inferior class of practitioners. In this sūtra, within the one term of “ten recollections” there are included two connotations: an obvious connotation and a hidden connotation. The hidden connotation sees from the perspective of the third pair of relationships in respect to the pure fruits of the Pure Land in order to explain the excellent virtues of the ten kinds of mindfulness of the practitioners of the inferior class.

此如彌勒發問經言。爾 84 時彌勒菩薩白佛言。如佛所說阿彌陀佛功德利益。若能 十念相續不斷念彼佛者、卽得往生。當云何念。佛言。非凡夫念。非不善念。非雜結使念。 具足如是念。卽得往生安養國土。凡有十念。何等爲十。

It is like the teaching contained in the Sūtra of the Questions of Maitreya, which says:

Then, the bodhisattva Maitreya addressed the Buddha, saying: “Concerning the excellent virtues and the benefits of Amitâbha Buddha taught by the Buddha: If, by being able to maintain unbroken mindfulness of that Buddha for the period of ten moments of mindfulness, one is directly reborn into his land, what kind of mindfulness should be maintained?” The Buddha replied: “It should not be worldling-mindfulness; it should not be unwholesome mindfulness; it should not be tainted mindfulness. If one can fully practice these kinds of mindfulness, one can be born directly into paradise. In total there are ten moments of mindfulness. What are the ten?”

一者。於一切衆生常生慈心、於一切衆生 不毀其行。若毀其行 終不往生。二者。於一切衆生深起悲心、除殘害意。三者。 發護法心、不惜身命。於一切法不生誹謗。四者。於忍辱中生決定心。五者。深 心淸淨、不染利養。六者。發一切種智心。日日常念、無有廢忘。七者。於一切 衆生、起尊重心。除我慢意、謙下言說。八者。於世談話不生味著心。九者。近 於覺意 深起種種善根因緣。遠離憒鬧散亂之心。十者。正念觀佛。除去諸根。

  1. Always be kind toward all sentient beings and do not denigrate their practices. If you denigrate the practices of others, in the end you will not be reborn in paradise.
  2. Always have pity on all sentient beings, ridding yourself of all malevolent sentiments.
  3. Arouse the intention to protect the dharma, and be indifferent regarding your own life. Do not denigrate any teaching.
  4. Make your resolve in the state of patient forbearance.
  5. Purify your mind deeply such that it is unstained by aims of profit.
  6. Give rise to the complete cognition of particular things, being mindful every day, without putting it aside and being unaware.
  7. Treat all sentient beings with deep respect. Removing conceit, speak with humility.
  8. Don't get addicted to worldly chit-chat.
  9. Stick close to the attitude of enlightenment, profoundly producing various causes of wholesome roots; avoid the hustle-bustle of the world and distractions.
  10. Properly contemplate on the Buddha, making the sense faculties clear. 85

解云。如是十念旣非凡夫、/>當知初地以上菩薩、乃 能具足十念。於純淨土、爲下輩因。是爲隱密義之十念。言顯了義十念相者。望第四對淨土 而說。如觀經言。

Note: It is not expected that these ten kinds of mindfulness will be practiced by worldlings; only bodhisattvas at the first ground and above can fully maintain this level of attention. In terms of serving as causes for rebirth in the Pure Land, they are for the practitioners of inferior level. These are the ten kinds of mindfulness in their esoteric interpretation. The ten kinds of mindfulness in their exoteric interpretation are explained in terms of the fourth pair of contrasts in the Pure Land. As the Contemplation Sūtra says:

「下品下生者。 或有衆生 作不善業、五逆十惡 具諸不善。臨命終時 遇善知識 爲說妙法 教令念 佛。若不能念者。應稱無量壽佛。如是至心 令聲不絕。具足十念 稱南無佛。稱 佛名故 於念念中。除八十億劫生死罪。命終之後 卽得往生。」乃至廣說。

In the case of the lowest of the lowest category of beings, there are some who engage in unwholesome activities such as the five heinous crimes 86 and the ten evils 87 and all kinds of immorality. Approaching their death, they encounter a good teacher who explains to them the excellent dharma, and teaches them to be mindful of the Buddha. If they are unable to maintain mindfulness, they should call the name of Amitâyus. In this way they should, with utmost attention not allow their intonation to lapse. For a full ten repetitions, they should say “Homage to [Amitâbha] Buddha.” Having called the name of the Buddha thus, in each repetition he destroys eighty thousand koṭīs of eons of crimes in cyclic existence. After dying, he is directly born into the land of bliss. 88

The text continues on in further detail.

以何等心名爲至心。云何名爲十念相續者。什公說言。 譬如有人於曠野中 值遇惡賊 揮戈拔劍 直來欲殺。其人勤走 視渡一河。若不渡河、首領難 全。爾時但念。渡河方便 我至河岸。爲著衣渡 89 。爲脫衣渡。若著衣 衲。恐不得過。若脫衣衲。恐不得暇。但有此念、更無他意。當念渡 90 河。卽是一念 此等十念。不雜餘念。行 者亦爾。若念佛名。若念佛相等。無間念佛 乃至十念。如是至心。名爲十念。此是顯了十念 相也。

What kind of mental state is implied by “utmost attention”? And what is the meaning of “ten continuous repetitions”? As Kumārajīva explains:

It is like a man in the wilderness who meets up with an evil bandit who is brandishing a halberd, has drawn his sword and is coming straight toward him, intending to kill him. This fellow, fleeing in panic, sees that he has to ford a river. If he doesn't cross, he will lose his neck. At that moment, all he can think about is the best way to cross the river. “If I'm going to get to the other side, shall I cross wearing my clothes, or take them off and cross? If I wear them, I may not make it across. If I try to remove them, I may run out of time.” This is the only thing he thinks of—nothing else enters his mind except this thought of crossing the river. Thus, this one thought is extended to ten thoughts with no distraction from other thoughts. The case of the meditator is just like this. If one is mindful of the Buddha's name, and if one is mindful of the Buddha's characteristics and so forth, there is no break in mindfulness of the Buddha, up to ten repetitions. In this case, “utmost attention” is called “ten moments of mindfulness.” This concludes the discussion of the exoteric aspect of the ten moments of mindfulness.

今此兩卷經說十念。具此隱密顯了二義。然於其中 顯了十念 與觀經意 少有不同。彼觀經中、不除五逆。唯除誹謗方等之罪。今此兩卷經中說 言 除其五逆 誹謗正法。如是相違、云何通者。彼經說其雖作五逆、依大乘教、得懺悔者。 此經中說不懺悔者。由此義故、不相違也。因緣之相 略說如是。上來所說因果二門。合爲第 二簡宗體竟。

The ten moments of mindfulness as discussed in this Two Roll Sūtra include the connotations of both the esoteric and exoteric interpretations. However, the exoteric explanation of the ten recollections in this sūtra differs to some extent from that seen in the Contemplation Sūtra. For example, the recollections in the Contemplation Sūtra do not remove the [effects of the] five heinous crimes; they only remove [the effects of] denigration [of the true teaching] and so forth. The explanation in the Two Fascicle Sūtra includes the removal of the five heinous crimes as well as denigration of the true teaching. How can we reconcile this discrepancy? That sūtra explains that even if one carries out the five heinous crimes, relying on the great vehicle teaching, one can repent. This sūtra's treatment of the problem is not through repentance. Understood in this way, there is no discrepancy. The explanation of causation is thus wrapped up like this. The explanation of the two aspects of cause and effect here serves together to conclude the second part on underscoring the central tenets.

III. Exposition of the Distinctions in People

第三約人分別。於中有二。初約三聚衆生分別。後就 四疑衆生分別。

This discussion has two parts. The first deals with the categorization of people into three groups. The second distinguishes people according to the four kinds of doubt.

A. Categorization of People into the Three Groups

初三聚者。如下經云。其有衆生 生彼國者、皆悉住 於正定之聚。所以者何。彼佛土中 無諸邪聚 及不定聚。

As the sūtra says below: “Sentient beings who are born in that Buddha-land all reside among the correctly determined class. Why so? In that land there are neither beings who are set in evil ways, nor those whose moral course is uncertain.” 91

如是三聚其相云何。此義具如寶性論說。彼云。略說 一切衆生界中。有三種衆生。何等爲三。一者求有、二者遠離求有、三者不求彼二。求有有 二種。一者。謗解脫道、無涅槃性。常求住世間、不求證涅槃。二者。於佛法中、闡提同位。 謗大乘故。是故不增不減經言。

What are the characteristics of the three classes of persons? This point is fully articulated in the Ratnagotravibhāga which says:

Roughly categorizing the types of all sentient beings in the world, there are three kinds. The first desire [cyclic] existence; the second are free from desiring existence, and the third do not desire either [existence or freedom from it]. Among those who desire existence, there are two types: The first are those who denigrate the path of liberation, who lack any inclination for nirvāṇa. They always seek to remain in this world, without any desire whatsoever of realizing nirvāṇa. The second are those who are ostensibly in the Buddhist tradition, but who are of the same class as the icchantikas. 92 This is because they denigrate the Great Vehicle. Therefore, the Sūtra of Neither Reifying nor Annihilating says:

若有比丘乃至優婆夷。若起一見、若起二見。諸佛如 來非彼世尊。如是等人非我弟子。

[The Buddha said to Śāriputra:] “There are monks [nuns,] and lay practitioners, some of whom give rise to a single view and some of whom give rise to two views. 93 All buddha-tathāgatas are not venerated by them. Such people are not my disciples.”

遠離求有者。亦有二種。一者無求道方便、二者有求 道方便。無方便者 亦有二種。一者、多種外道種種。二者、於佛法中同外道行。雖信佛法 而顚倒取、如犢子等。

There are also two kinds of people who are free from desiring existence. The first lack the means for seeking enlightenment, and the second possess the means. Among those who lack the means, there are again two types. The first are the various non-Buddhists with their mistaken views. The second are Buddhists who engage in non-Buddhist practices. Even though they believe in the Buddhadharma, they hold on to fundamental cognitive errors, like, for example, the adherents of sects like the Vātsīputrīyas. 94


The text continues this discussion at length. As for those who have the means to seek enlightenment, there are also two kinds: the adherents of the two vehicles.

不求彼二者、所謂第一利根衆生諸菩薩等。又、彼求 有衆生一闡提人、及佛法中、同一闡提位、名爲邪定聚衆生。又、遠離求有衆生中、墮無方 便求道衆生、名爲不定聚衆生。聲聞辟支佛及不求彼二、名爲正定聚衆生。論說如是。

Those who seek neither cyclic existence nor freedom from it are the sentient beings possessing the sharpest faculties, such as the bodhisattvas. Furthermore, those icchantikas who seek existence and those Buddhists who are at the same level as icchantikas are characterized as beings in the class who are set in evil ways. Furthermore, among those beings that are free from the desire for cyclic existence, those who lack the means to seek enlightenment are called sentient beings of the indeterminate class. Śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas as well as those who seek neither cyclic existence nor freedom from it are categorized in the class of those with the correct determination. The treatise explains it like this. 95

此中總判二乘菩薩爲正定聚、而未分別位地分齊。齊 何等位入正定聚。依何等義名正定聚。決定不退墮斷善根。如是名爲正定聚義。論其位而依 瑜伽說。正定聚有二種。一者本性正定聚。二者習成正定聚。若依此而說。五種種性中。菩 薩種性人從無始時來。不作五逆及斷善根 是名本性正定聚也。

Here the adherents of the two vehicles and bodhisattvas have generally been classified as belonging to the correctly determined class, but we have not made any distinction in regard to level. What is the required level for entering the correctly determined class? And based on what kind of connotations is this named the “correctly determined class”? It means that they definitely will not retrogress [into a lower stage of practice] and cut off their wholesome roots. This is the meaning of what is called the “correctly determined class.” In clarifying the matter of levels, we can rely on the teaching of the Yogâcārabhūmi-śāstra, which says that there are two types of correctly determined character. One is the innate correctly determined character and the other is the cultivated correctly determined character. 96 Based on this explanation, among the five different types of religious capacity 97 taught in Yogâcāra, practitioners with the capacity for bodhisattvahood have, since time immemorial, never committed any of the five heinous crimes nor severed their wholesome roots. They are said to have the innate correctly determined character.

其二乘性 及不定性、 得作五逆及斷善根。斷善根時、 墮邪定聚。善根相續後未趣入、爲不定聚。已趣入時、卽當分別三品。若其本來下品善根而 趣入者 乃至燸法、 猶爲不定。入頂法位、方爲正定。論說頂不斷善根故。若其本來中品善 根而趣入者、 至燸法時、名爲正定。若其本來上品善根而趣入者始趣入時、便作正定

Those with the capacity for the two vehicles as well as those of indeterminate capacity have committed [one or more of] the five heinous crimes and have severed their wholesome roots. At the time of severing their wholesome roots, they fall into the wrongly determined class. After their resumption of cultivation of virtuous roots, they are still not committed, and thus their proclivities are indeterminate. Once they have entered into practice, they can be further categorized into three subclasses: (1) Those who enter into practice who originally have weak wholesome roots are up to the stage of warmth, 98 still undetermined. Once one enters the highest mundane meditative state, 99 one is properly determined. This is because the treatises say that after the highest mundane meditative state, one never again severs one's wholesome roots. (2) Those who enter into practice originally having medium-strength wholesome roots are said to be properly determined upon their arrival to the stage of warmth. (3) Those who enter into meditation practice originally possessing strong wholesome roots are said to be properly determined right from the start.

如瑜伽說。若有安住下品善根而趣入者。當知下品、 名有間隙。未能無間 未善淸淨。若有安住 中品善根 而趣入者當知中品。若有安住 上品善 根 而趣入者、當知上品。名無間隙 已能無間。已善淸淨。如是爲已趣入相。

As the Yogâcārabhūmi-śāstra says:

If one is stably established with weak wholesome roots and enters meditation, he should be understood as being in the inferior group, and is called “a practitioner subject to lapses.” Not being able to avoid lapses, one is not well purified. If one is stably established with medium-strength wholesome roots and enters meditation, he should be understood as belonging to the middling group. If one is stably established with strong wholesome roots, one should be understood as belonging to the superior group, and is called “a practitioner who is not subject to lapses.” Being able to avoid lapses, one is well purified. These are the characteristics of those who enter into meditation practice. 100

又彼論云。依此下品、 順解脫分善根。婆伽梵說。 若具世間上品正見、 雖歷千生、不墮惡道。

The Mahāyāna-abhidharma-samuccaya also says that depending on [these] weak [wholesome roots, one cultivates] the wholesome roots that are conducive to liberation. The Bhagavān said: “If one gains the correct views of the highest mundane category, even passing through a thousand rebirths, one will not fall into evil paths.” 101

此文正明本來安住上品善根而趣入者。始入下品、 順解脫分善之時便得不退。無間隙故。又彼論說。若時安住下成熟者、猶往惡趣。若中若上、 不往惡趣。此文正明本來安住下品善根而趣入者。雖至燸法、下成熟位、未得不退。故往惡 趣。

These passages properly clarify the situation of one entering meditation practice originally abiding in strong wholesome roots. If one first enters from the lower level with the wholesome [roots] conducive to liberation, one can directly attain to the state of non-retrogression, since there are no lapses [in one's practice]. Again, that treatise says that if at that time one abides in the lower level of maturation, one can still experience negative rebirths. If one is abiding in middling or higher-level maturation, one does not undergo negative rebirths. 102 This sentence properly shows that when people enter practice having been originally based in weak wholesome roots, even though they reach to the stage of warmth, in the maturation of lesser states it is still possible for them to retrogress. Therefore they can also undergo negative rebirth.

是約二乘位地分別。若是不定種性人 直向大乘而趣 入時、至種性位、方爲正定。如起信論說。

This is the distinction in level from the perspective of the two vehicles. If the practitioner is someone of indeterminate religious capacity, and enters practice straightaway oriented toward the Great Vehicle, as soon as this person arrives to the stage of innate potentiality, he or she is correctly determined. As the Awakening of Faith says:

「依何等人、修何等行、得信成就堪能發心。所謂依不定聚衆生有熏 習善根力故、 信業果報能起十善。厭生死苦、欲求無上菩提、得值遇佛。親承供養。修行信 心逕一萬劫。信心成就故、諸佛菩薩教令發心。或以大悲故 能自發心。或因正法欲滅 以護 法因緣 能自發心。如是信心成就 得發心者 入正定聚畢竟不退。名住如來種中 正因相應。 」

Depending on what kind of individual [endowments] and what kind of practices is one able to perfect one's faith sufficiently to produce the aspiration for enlightenment? In the case of those who are categorized as belonging to the indeterminate class, based on the power of perfumation and wholesome roots, they believe in karmic retribution and are able to initiate the practices of the ten kinds of good behavior. Becoming disillusioned with the suffering of cyclic existence, they seek perfect enlightenment, and are able to encounter a buddha. Paying respects and making offerings to him, they cultivate the attitude of faith through ten thousand eons. Based on their perfection of the attitude of faith, the buddhas and bodhisattvas teach them to arouse their intention [for perfect enlightenment]. Some are able to motivate their aspiration based on their own compassion. Some are able to motivate their aspiration through the destruction of desire based on [their study of] the correct teaching, by observing the law of dependent arising. Those who perfect their attitude of faith in this way are able to arouse the aspiration for enlightenment, enter into the determined class, never again to retrogress. This is called association with proper causes while abiding in the family of the Tathāgata. 103

此言名住如來種者、名已入習種性位。卽是十解初發 心住。上來所說 皆明習成之正定聚。若其本來菩薩種性直向大乘而趣入者 始趣入時 永得不 退。不由業力墮於惡趣。依此而言 入十信位 便得不退。不同前說不定性人。如是等說 皆就 穢土。

When the Awakening of Faith says “abiding in the family of the tathāgatas,” it means that one has already entered into the stage of perfuming the lineage. This is the same as the first abode—that of arousing of the intention—in the ten understandings. 104

All that has been explained above clarifies cultivated attainment of entry into the correctly determined class. If those who possess the original capacity for bodhisattvahood enter into practice while straightaway orienting themselves toward the Great Vehicle, they will, at the time of entry, permanently attain to the condition of non-retrogression. They will not fall into negative rebirths due to karmic momentum. Based on this it can yet be said that when one enters into the stages of the ten kinds of faith, one also attains the condition of non-retrogression. This kind of attainment is not the same as that of the above-explained practitioner of indeterminate religious capacity. These kinds of explanations are made from the perspective of [birth in] a defiled realm.

若就得生彼淨土者、 定性二乘 卽不往生。不定性中 三品之人、發大乘心者皆得生彼。生彼之時卽入正定。由外緣力所住持故。三聚分別略義如 是。

If we take the perspective of one who is able to take birth in his Pure Land, those who have the set nature as practitioners of the two vehicles are not reborn there. In terms of the three levels of practitioners among those with indeterminate capacity, those who give rise to the attitude of the Great Vehicle are all reborn there. At that time, they enter the correctly determined class. This is because they are supported by the power of external conditions. This concludes the discussion of the categorization of the three classes of people.

B. Sentient Beings with Four Doubts

次明有四疑惑衆生。於中先明所疑境界。 然後顯其疑惑之相。所疑境者。如下文言。若有衆生以疑惑心、修諸功德願生彼 國 不了佛智、不思議智、不可稱智。大乘廣智。無等無倫最上勝智。於此諸智。 疑惑不信。然猶信罪福。修習善本。願生彼國。此諸衆生。生彼宮殿。五百歲中。 不聞三寶。故說邊地。乃至廣說。此言佛智。是總標句。下之四句。別顯四智。

Next is the explanation of [the cases of] the sentient beings [whose progress is thwarted by] the four doubts. First I will explain the objects of the doubts, and then I will clarify their character. The objects of these doubts as explained in the sūtra are as follows:

There may be sentient beings who, in a state of doubt, cultivate merit and vow to be reborn in his land and do not grasp the Buddha's cognitive faculties—that is, the cognitive faculty that apprehends the inconceivable, the cognitive faculty that assays the unassayable, the cognitive faculty that apprehends the breadth of the Great Vehicle, and the peerless, unequaled, greatest, superior, excellent cognitive faculty. In regard to these kinds of cognitive faculties there is confusion and unbelief. Nonetheless, if one just has confidence in the law of retribution for good and evil actions and cultivates wholesome roots, vowing to be born in his land, these sentient beings will be born in a palace there where for five hundred years they will not hear of the three treasures. 105 Therefore it is called the “realm on the fringe.” 106

The text continues on at further length. This term, “Buddha's cognitive faculties” is a general reference, referring to the four types of cognitive faculties listed below, which will now be explained separately. 107

1. The Objects of the Four Cognitive Faculties

a. Cognitive Faculty That Apprehends the Inconceivable

不思議智者。是成所作智。此智能作不思議事。謂如 不過丈六之身 而無能見頂者。不增毛孔之量而遍十方世界。一念稱名。永滅多劫重罪。十念 念德。能生界外勝報。如是等事。非下智所測。是故名爲不思議智。

Cognitive Faculty that Apprehends the Inconceivable refers to the [Yogâcāra] cognitive faculty with unrestricted activity. 108 This cognitive faculty is able to carry out inconceivable activities. It is like there being a body that does not exceed sixteen feet, yet for which no one can see the top of its head. Or a measurement that does not exceed the amount that would fill a pore, yet that pervades the ten directions of the universe. Or one recitation of the Buddha's name wiping out many eons of heavy karma. Or the virtue of ten recollections being able to bring about the excellent karmic reward of being reborn beyond the three realms. These kinds of things cannot be fathomed by inferior cognitive faculties. Therefore it is called the “cognitive faculty that apprehends the inconceivable.” Cognitive Faculty That Assays the Unassayable

不可稱智者、是妙觀察智。此智觀察不可稱境。謂一 切法、皆如幻夢。非有非無、離言絕慮。非逐言者所能稱量。是故名爲不可稱智。

The cognitive faculty that assays the unassayable is equivalent to the [Yogâcāra] cognitive faculty that marvelously observes. 109 This cognitive faculty scrutinizes unassayable objects. For example, [it can see] all phenomena as being illusory and dreamlike, neither existent nor non-existent, free from language and cut off from thought. It is the evaluation that can be carried out by one who does not chase after words. Hence it is called the “cognitive faculty that assays the unassayable.”

c. Cognitive Faculty [That Apprehends] the Breadth of the Great Vehicle

大乘廣智者。是平等性智。此智廣度不向小乘。謂遊 無我故無不我。無不我故。無不等攝。以此同體智力、普載無邊有情、皆令同至無上菩提。 是故名爲大乘廣智。

The cognitive faculty that apprehends the breadth of the Great Vehicle is equivalent to the [Yogâcāra] cognitive faculty of intrinsic equality. 110 This is the cognitive faculty that enables extensive salvation, and is thus not commensurate with the lesser vehicle. Since it sports in selflessness, there is no non-self. Since there is no non-self, there is nothing that it does not equally embrace. Thus, using the power of the cognitive faculty that knows that we are the same in essence, it universally transports limitless sentient beings, all of whom are brought to the same peerless enlightenment. Therefore it is called the cognitive faculty that apprehends the breadth of the Great Vehicle.

d. Peerless, Unequaled, Greatest, Superior, Excellent Cognitive Faculty

無等無倫最上勝智者。正是如來大圓鏡智。始轉本識 方歸心原 一切種境無不圓照。是故名爲大圓鏡智。此一智中有五殊勝。如解脫身二乘同得。 如是鏡智正是法身。非彼所共故名無等。是一勝也。如前三智菩薩漸得大圓鏡智唯佛頓證、 更無餘類。故名無倫。是二勝也。過於不思議智爲最。踰於不可稱智爲上。寛於大乘廣智爲 勝。是爲第三四五勝也。是故名爲無等無倫最上勝智。

The peerless, unequaled, greatest, superior, excellent cognitive faculty 111 refers to the [Yogâcāra] perfect mirror-like cognitive faculty. 112 One first overturns the base consciousness, then returns to the mind's origin. There are no kinds of objects that are not perfectly displayed. Therefore it is called the cognitive faculty that is like a perfect mirror. Within this one form of cognitive faculty there are five excellent attributes (which are defined by five Chinese characters). In the case of the liberation body, this is something that the adherents of the two vehicles also attain. This mirror-like cognitive faculty is the dharma body proper and is not something accessible to the two vehicle adherents; therefore it is called peerless. This is one of its excellent attributes. While the prior three forms of cognitive faculties are attained gradually by bodhisattvas, this one is suddenly attained by the buddhas, and there is no further type of person who attains it. Hence it is said that it is unequaled. This is its second excellent attribute. It far surpasses the inconceivable cognitive faculty in being the greatest; it goes beyond the unassayable cognitive faculty in being superior, and excels the cognitive faculty of the breadth of the Great Vehicle in the vastness of its scope. These constitute its third, fourth, and fifth excellent attributes. This is why it is called the peerless, unequaled, greatest, superior, excellent cognitive faculty.


This concludes the explanation of the objects that are blocked by the four kinds of doubt.

2. Characteristics of the Four Kinds of Doubt

次明四種疑惑相者。謂如有一性非質直、邪聰我慢、 薄道心人、不了四智、 而起四疑。

This means that there is one whose nature is not straightforward, who is wily and proud, a person of shallow realization, who does not understand the four types of cognitive faculties and gives rise to four doubts.

a. Doubting the Cognitive Faculty That Is Unrestricted in Its Activity

一者疑成作事智。所作之事、謂聞經說十念念佛。得 生彼國。由不了故、生疑而言。如佛經說、善惡業道、罪福無朽。重者先牽 理數無差。如何 一生無惡不造。

The “activity” called into question here is that of the sūtra's claim that with just ten repetitions of the Buddha's name one can attain rebirth in his Pure Land. Since [some people] cannot comprehend this, they give rise to doubt, saying: “As the Buddha teaches in his sermons, in the course of the path of good and evil karma, the effects of sinful and meritorious activities do not fade away. Their weight pulls one forward, governed by a principle that lacks disparity. How can one pass through an entire lifetime free from wrongdoing?” 113

但以十念能滅諸罪 便得生彼、 入正定聚、永離三途、 畢竟不退耶。又、無始來 起諸煩惱繫屬三界而相纏縛。如何不斷二輪煩惱、 直以十念出三 界外耶。爲治如是邪思惟疑。是故說名不思議智。

Can one simply by ten recollections of the Buddha's name wipe away all crimes and directly attain rebirth in his land, enter the correctly determined class and be forever removed from the three negative paths, never again to retrogress? Moreover, sentient beings since the beginningless past have produced all kinds of afflictions. They are tethered to the triple realm and bound to the marks of the six objects. How are they, without severing these two webs of affliction, to directly escape from the three realms by a mere ten repetitions of the Buddha's name? Therefore, the cognitive faculty that apprehends the inconceivable is taught to remedy this kind of doubt produced by mistaken reasoning.

欲顯佛智有大勢力故。能以近爲遠、 以遠爲近。以 重爲輕、以輕爲重。雖實有是事、而非思量境。所以直應仰信、經說不可以自淺識思惟。若 欲生信 應以事況。譬如千年積薪、 其高百里。豆許火燒、一日都盡。可言千年之積薪如何 一日盡耶。

Therefore the Buddha wants to show that his own cognitive faculties hold great power, such as being able to treat the near as being far, the far as being near; the heavy as light, and the light as heavy. Even though there really is such a case, it is not something that is comprehensible by discriminating thought. Therefore one must merely have faith that the sūtras cannot be speaking from the standpoint of the doubter's own shallow thinking. If one wants to generate faith, then one needs concrete examples. For example, it is like the case of a mountain of firewood that has been piling up for a thousand years, reaching the height of one hundred ri (Ch. li). When a sacrificial fire is lit, the whole pile will be consumed in a day. Should we ask how it can be the case that a thousand-year pile of firewood can be completely consumed in a day?

又如躄者、自力勤行、要逕多日至一由旬。若寄他船、 因風帆勢、 一日之間能至千里。可言躄者之身、 云何一日至千里耶。世間船師之身 尚作如 是絕慮之事。何況如來法王之勢、而不能作不思議事耶。是爲對治第一疑也。

Or take the case of a cripple, who, relying on his own strength, must travel many days to go just one yojana. 114 Yet if he avails himself of a boat and has a strong tailwind, he can travel a thousand ri in a single day. Can we ask how a cripple can travel a thousand ri in a single day? If even a worldly boatmaster is able to accomplish this kind of thought-cutting deed, why should it be the case that the power of the Tathāgata, King of the Dharma, cannot accomplish inconceivable deeds? This is how the first doubt is to be treated.

b. Doubting the Cognitive Faculty of Marvelous Observation

第二疑者。謂疑妙觀察智、所觀之境、如同經中歎佛 智云。「妙觀察諸法、非有非無、遠離二邊、而不著中。」由 不了故、 生疑而言、如今現見稱物之時、物重卽低、 物輕必擧。若言輕而不擧 重而不低、 如是說者、 有言無義。因緣生法當知亦爾。若實非無、便墮於有。如其非有、卽當於無。若 言非無而不得有、非有而不墮無、卽同重而不低、輕而不擧。故知是說 有言無實。

This concerns the cognitive faculty of marvelous observation. It arises in response to statements in the sūtras regarding observed objects that say such things as “One marvelously observes that all phenomena are neither existent nor inexistent, yet while avoiding both extremes, one should also not stick to the middle.” 115 Not fully grasping the point, one gives rise to doubt, saying that when we weigh things, it is clear that heavy things sink and light things rise. But if we say that light things don't rise and heavy things don’t sink, then language is rendered meaningless.

It is the same with causation. If one says that there is really no non-existence, one directly falls into the perspective of existence. If one says that there is really no existence, then one falls into the view of non-existence. If one denies inexistence while obtaining existence, or asserts existence while falling into inexistence, it is same as saying that the heavy does not sink and the light does not rise. Hence we should know that this kind of talk is only chatter, without substance.

如是稱量、卽墮諸邊。或執依他實有不空、墮增益邊。 或執緣生空無有、墮損減邊。或計俗有眞空。雙負二邊、墮相違論。或計非有非無、著一中 邊、墮愚癡論。如釋論云、非有非無、是愚癡論故。爲治此等邪稱量執、是故安立不可稱智。

When we evaluate things in this way, we inevitably fall into extremes. Some grasp the other-dependent [nature] as being truly existent and not empty, and thus fall into the extreme of reification. Others grasp phenomena as being dependently originated, empty, and non-existent, and thus fall into the extreme of annihilationism. Some take the conventional truth to be that of existence and the absolute truth to be that of emptiness. Both end up succumbing to the two extremes, falling into contradiction. Some deny both existence and inexistence, attaching to the extreme of the middle way—which amounts to falling into foolishness. As the commentary on the Middle Way Treatise says: “[Saying] neither existence nor non-existence is foolishness.” 116 Hence, in order to counter these attachments to mistaken evaluation, [the Buddha] establishes the cognitive faculty that assays the unassayable.

欲顯諸法甚深、離言絕慮。不可尋思稱量、如言取義。 如瑜伽說。云何甚深難見法。謂一切法。何以故。第一甚深難見法者所謂諸法自性、皆絕戲 論過言語道。然由言說爲依止故、 方乃可取、可觀、可覺。是故諸法甚深難見。

If you want to disclose the deep profundity of all phenomena, which is removed from language and severs discursive thought, and which does not seek to carry out evaluation through discursive thought, you cannot evaluate things through discursive thought; this is the same as attaching to the meanings of words. As the Yogâcārabhūmi-śāstra says:

What is the dharma that is most profound and difficult to perceive? It all dharmas. How so? The most profound and difficult-to-perceive dharma is that of the intrinsic natures of all dharmas, which cut off all mental proliferation and go beyond the path of language. Yet because one takes language as one's point of orientation, one is able to grasp, observe, and cognize. Therefore dharmas are extremely difficult to perceive. 117


This serves to counter the second doubt.

c. Doubting the Cognitive Faculty That Perceives Intrinsic Equality

第三疑者。謂疑平等性智等、齊度之意。如聞經說。一 切衆生悉皆有心。凡有心者當得菩提。由不了故、生疑而言、若如來衆生、 皆有佛性、悉度 一切有情、令得無上菩提者、是卽衆生雖多、必有終盡。其最後佛無利他德。所化無故、卽 無成佛、功德闕故。無化有功、 不應道理。闕功成佛、亦無是處。作是邪計、 誹謗大乘、 不信平等廣度之意。

The third doubt is that regarding the cognitive faculty that perceives intrinsic equality, which has as its purpose the salvation of others. As the [Nirvāṇa]-sūtra says: “All sentient beings have mind, and all those who have mind will attain enlightenment.” 118 Not comprehending this, [someone] will say that if tathāgatas and sentient beings all possess the Buddha-nature, given the fact that they completely save all sentient brings and make them attain perfect enlightenment, even though sentient beings are extremely great in number, eventually this number must be exhausted. This means that the last buddha will have no access to the merit of saving others. Not having others to save, he will not be able to become a buddha. Lacking in this merit, he will not be able to save others, and this results in contradiction. There is also no such thing as becoming a buddha while being deficient in merit. Following this mistaken line of thought, one denigrates the Great Vehicle, and does not believe in [the possibility of] equal and universal salvation. 119

爲治如是狹少疑執是故安立大乘廣智、欲明佛智。無 所不運所不載、一切皆入無餘。故言大乘。其所運載。無始無際 故名廣智。所以然者。虛空 無邊故 衆生無數量。三世無際故生死無始終、 衆生旣無始終。諸佛亦無始終。若使諸佛有 始成者 其前無佛 卽無聖教、無教無聞 無言無習 而成佛者。卽無因有果。但有言無實。

The cognitive faculty of the vast Great Vehicle is established to counter this kind of narrow-minded attachment. In desiring to clarify the Buddha-wisdom, there is no one not transported, no one not carried: all are included without exception. Hence it is called the Great Vehicle. In carrying others, there is neither beginning nor end. Therefore it is called the vast cognitive faculty. How so? Since the universe is limitless, sentient beings are numberless. Since the three times lack border, cyclic existence lacks beginning and end. Since sentient beings lack beginning and end, the buddhas also lack beginning and end. If we admit that buddhas have a beginning and an attainment, that would mean that before this there were no buddhas, and thus no holy teaching, no hearing of it, no elocution, and no cultivation—yet they become buddhas. This means that there is an effect without a cause, which amounts to mere chatter without substance.

由是道理、諸佛無始。雖實無始、而無一佛本作凡。 雖皆本作凡、而展轉無始。以是准知衆生無終。雖實無終、而無一人後不作佛。雖悉後作佛、 而展轉無終。是故應信平等性智。無所不度而非有限。所以安立大乘廣智。是爲對治第三疑 也。

Based on this reasoning, all buddhas would lack a beginning. Yet even though they lack a beginning, there is not one buddha who was not originally a sentient being. And even though they were all originally sentient beings, their development lacks a beginning. Based on this, we can conjecture that sentient beings must be endless. Yet even though they are truly endless, there is not a single one of them that does not eventually become a buddha. And even though they all eventually become buddhas, their development is endless. Therefore one should believe in the cognitive faculty that perceives intrinsic equality. There are none who are not saved, yet there is no limit to their number. It is based on this that the cognitive faculty of the vast Great Vehicle is established. This settles the third doubt.

d. Doubting the Perfect Mirror-like Cognitive Faculty

第四疑者。謂疑大圓鏡智遍照一切境義。云何生疑。謂 作是言。虛空無邊故、世界亦無邊。世界無邊故、衆生亦無邊。衆生無邊故、心行差別、根、 欲、性等、皆是無邊際。云何於此、能得盡知。爲當漸漸修習而知、爲當 不修、忽然頓照。

The fourth doubt is constituted by confusion as to whether it is really possible for the mirror-like cognitive faculty to perfectly reflect all referents. This doubt arises when one thinks that since the universe is limitless, its worlds are also limitless, and since its worlds are limitless, sentient beings are also limitless. Since sentient beings are limitless, the distinctions in their mental functions, faculties, desires, temperaments, and so forth are also without limit. This being the case, how could one possibly have exhaustive knowledge of all of these things? And would one come to know all these things through gradual cultivation, or would one come to know them suddenly, without cultivation?

若不修習而頓照者、 一切凡夫皆應等照。等不修故、 無異因故。若便漸修、終漸得盡知者、卽一切境非無邊際、無邊有盡、不應理故。如是進退、 皆不成立。云何得普照、 名一切種智。

If it is the case that we come to know them suddenly, without cultivation, then all unenlightened worldlings should also experience this kind of cognitive faculty. After all, they have also not carried out cultivation, and there is no difference among the causes [that they possess]. If it is the case that one finally attains consummation of the cognitive faculty after a period of gradual cultivation, then it would not be the case that all objects are limitless, since to be limitless and yet be exhaustible is contradictory. With this kind of back-and-forth, neither [the possibility of omniscience nor the approaches of either sudden or gradual] can be posited. How could they attain universal illumination, known as the knowledge of all specificities?

爲治如是兩關疑難故、安立無等無倫最上勝智。欲明如 是大圓鏡智、超過三智而無等類。二諦之外、獨在無二。兩關二表、迢然無關。只應仰信、 不可比量。故名無等無倫最上勝智。

The incomparable, unequalled, supreme cognitive faculty is established in order to overcome both these barriers—the doubt [about the possibility of omniscience] and the problem [of whether its attainment is sudden or gradual]. Therefore I want to clarify that this mirror-like cognitive faculty surpasses the other three kinds of cognitive faculties—there is nothing like it. Outside the two truths one resides independently, in non-duality. Both barriers and their two external expressions transcend the barrierless. One should just have faith, because it cannot be apprehended through reason. Therefore it is called the incomparable, unequalled, supreme cognitive faculty.

云何於此起仰信者。譬如世界無邊。不出虛空之外。 如是萬境無限。咸入一心之內。佛智離相歸於心原。智與一心 渾同無二。以始覺者 卽同本 覺、故無一境 出此智外。由是道理、無境不盡而非有限。以無限智 照無邊境故。如起信論 云。

How does one generate faith in this cognitive faculty? It is like, for example, the way that worlds, limitless as they may be, do not exist outside the universe. In the same way, myriad objects, without limit, are all contained within the One Mind. The Buddha's cognitive faculty, free from marks, returns to the mind-source. The cognitive faculty and the one mind, merged together, are not two. With activated enlightenment, one returns to intrinsic enlightenment, and hence there is not a single object that exists outside this cognitive faculty. Through this reasoning, there is no object that is not exhausted and yet there is no such thing as a limit. Using limitless cognitive faculties, one illuminates limitless objects. As the Awakening of Faith says:

「一切境界本來一心 離於想 念。以衆生妄見境界故、心有分齊。以妄起想念、不稱法性故、不能決了。諸佛如來離於見 想、無所不遍。心眞實故、 卽是諸法之性。自體顯照一切妄法。有大智用 無量方便 隨諸衆 生所應得解悉能開示一切法義。是故得名一切種智。」

All objects are originally the one mind, free from conceptualization. Because sentient beings deludedly perceive objects, the mind has limitation. Since one gives rise to deluded conceptions, one is unable to assay the dharma-nature, and is thus unable to apprehend it. Since all buddha-tathāgatas are free from views and conceptions, there is no place where their cognitive faculties do not reach. Since their minds are authentic, they are identical with the nature of all phenomena. The essence of their own minds clarifies all obfuscated phenomena. Possessing the function of great cognitive faculties and numberless expedient means, they are able to show the significance of all phenomena according to what all sentient beings should be able to understand. Hence it is called the “cognitive faculty that perceives all specific things.” 120

是爲無等無倫最上勝智。無所見故、無所不見。如是 對治第四疑也。然若不得意、如言取義。有邊無邊、皆不離過。依非有邊門、假說無邊義耳。 若人不決如是四疑、雖生彼國而在邊地。如其有人、雖未明解如前所說四智之境、而能自謙 心眼未開。仰惟如來一向伏信、如是等人、隨其行品往生彼土、不在邊地。生著邊者。別是 一類。非九品攝。是故不應妄生疑惑也。

This is the peerless, unequaled, greatest, superior, excellent cognitive faculty. Since there is nothing to be seen, there is nothing that it doesn't see. In this way it corrects the fourth doubt. But if you are unable to get the point, it will be like words adhering to meanings. Whether limited and limitless — neither can escape error. It is indeed precisely based on the aspect of the no-limit that one provisionally explains the meaning of limitlessness. If one is unable to resolve these four doubts, even if one manages to be born in that land, he or she will reside only at its outer edges. If there is someone like this, even if he or she is unable to understand the objects of the prior four kinds of cognitive faculties but is able to humbly yield even though his or her mind's eye is not yet opened, and with faith, think only of the Tathāgata with wholehearted submission; this kind of person, according to his level of practice, will be born in that land, and not reside at its outer edges. 121 Those born stuck at the edge form a single class of beings who are not counted among the nine grades. 122 Thus, one should not deludedly give rise to doubt.

1.5. Bibliography

1.5.1. East Asian Canonical Sources

Abidan pibosha lun (阿毘曇毘婆沙論). 60 fasc. T 1546.28.1–416.

Buzeng bujian jing (不増不減). 1 fasc. T 668.16.466–468.

Cheng weishi lun (成唯識論). 10 fasc. T 1585.31.1a-59a.

Da ban niepan jing (大般涅槃大般涅槃經) (Mahāparinirvāṇa-sūtra). 40 fasc. T 374.12.365c-603c.

Daeseung gisillon byeolgi (大乘起信論別記). 2 fasc. HPC 1.677–697; T 1845.44.226a-240c.

Dasheng qixinlun yiji (大乘信論義記). 3 or 5 fasc. T 1846.44.240–287.

Dazhi du lun (大智度論) (Mahāprajñāpāramitā-śāstra). 100 fasc. T 1509.25.57c-756b.

Fodijing lun (佛地經論). 7 fasc. T 1530.26.291–328.

Huayan jing (華嚴經) (Avataṃsaka-sūtra). 60 fasc. T 278.9.395a-788b.

Huayan jing (華嚴經) (Avataṃsaka-sūtra). 80 fasc. T 279.10.1b-444c.

Jie shenmi jing (解深密大般槃經) (Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra). 5 fasc. T 676.16.688b-711b.

Pusa yingluo benye jing (菩薩瓔珞本業經). 2 fasc. T 1485.24.1010b-1023a.

Renwang huguo bore boluomi jing (仁王護國般若波羅蜜經). 2 fasc. T 246.8.825a-846a.

She dasheng lun (攝大乘論) (Mahāyāna saṃparigraha-śāstra). 3 fasc. T 1593.31.112b-132c.

Shengman shizi hu yisheng da fangbian fangguang jing (勝鬘師子吼一乘大方便方廣經) (Śrīmālādevī-siṃha-nāda-sūtra). 1 fasc. T 353.12.217a-223b.

Wuliangshoujing youbotishe (無量壽經優波提舍) (Sukhāvatīvyūhopadeśa). 1 fasc. T 1524.26.230c-233a.

Xianyang shengjiao lun (顯揚聖教論) (Prakaranâryavāca-śāstra). 20 fasc. T 1602.31.480b-583b.

Yuqie shidi lun (瑜伽師地論) (Yogâcārabhūmi-śāstra). 100 fasc. T 1579.30.279–882.

1.5.2. Modern Works

Inagaki, Hisao. The Three Pure Land Sutras. Berkeley, Calif.: Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research,  1995.

Kochumuttom, Thomas A. A Buddhist Doctrine of Experience: A New Translation and Interpretation of the Works of Vasubandhu the Yogâcārin. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass,  1982.


1. The Taishō text starts off somewhat differently here, with 將申兩卷經旨。略開四門分別。

2. Section four of the commentary is missing.

3. These are the five turbidities (defilements) concerned with interaction in the world 五濁(Skt. pañca-kaṣāya): (1) the turbidity of the trends of the present age, (2) the turbidity of mistaken views, (3) the turbidity of afflictions, (4) the turbidity of being a sentient being, (5) the turbidity of having a lifetime.

4. The four raging currents (四暴流) are four afflictions that agitate the originally quiescent mind: desire, existence, opinion, and ignorance.

5. The five sins 五罪 are killing 殺生, stealing 偸盜 , committing adultery 邪婬, lying 妄語, and drinking intoxicants 飮酒; they are countered by the five precepts 五戒. The second fascicle of the Sūtra of the Buddha of Immeasurable Life provides a lengthy discourse on the five sins, including five much broader categories of unwholesome activity, along with an explanation of the type of retribution invited.

6. Three levels of Pure Land practitioners explained in the Sūtra of Immeasurable Life 無量壽經 who are reborn in the Pure Land of Amitâbha Buddha: the superior, the middling, and the inferior. (1) The superior 上輩 are those who enter the saṃgha, arouse the intention for enlightenment, maintain steadfast mindfulness of the Buddha of Infinite Life 無量壽佛, cultivate meritorious virtues, and vow to be reborn in his Pure Land. (2) The middling 中輩 are those who arouse the intention for enlightenment, maintain steadfast mindfulness of the Buddha of Infinite Life, maintain pure precepts, erect stūpas and images, give offerings of food to the clergy, and vow to be reborn in his Pure Land. (3) The inferior 下輩 are those who arouse the intention for enlightenment, maintain steadfast mindfulness up to ten times, and vow to be reborn in the Pure Land.

7. The HBJ text here has 珍著, but in the Yusim allakdo, which replicates the Doctrinal Essentials of the Sūtra of Immeasurable Life in many places, we find 珍香 (T 1965.47.110c2).

8. Eighteen kinds of perfect purity — 十八圓淨. The eighteen perfections of purity in a buddha's enjoyment body: (1) Perfect purity of visible color 色相圓淨. (2) Perfect purity of visible shape 形貌圓淨. (3) Perfect purity of extent 量圓淨. The Pure Land where the Buddha abides is limitless and unfathomable. (4) Perfect purity of location 處圓淨. The Pure Land transcends the locations of the three realms and thus is not subject to the truths of suffering or arising of suffering. (5) Perfect purity of cause 因圓淨. The Pure Land is produced by the function of superb supramundane wholesome factors and is thus not subject to causation by the worldly dharmas of suffering or arising of suffering. (6) Perfect purity of effect 果圓淨. The tathāgatas and bodhisattvas have pure unrestricted wisdom as their essence, with no effect from the truth of suffering. (7) Perfect purity of lord 主圓淨. The Pure Land is under the control and protection of the tathāgatas. (8) Perfect purity of the assistants. The Pure Land is the peaceful abode of the great bodhisattvas, who help people advance on the Buddha-path by providing them with proper teachings and practices. (9) Perfect purity of retinue. The Pure Land is inhabited by the eight kinds of beings 八部衆 who always gather for his sermons. (10) Perfect purity of maintenance. In the Pure Land, bodhisattvas and other associates of the Buddha support and further the taste of the dharma and nurture the dharma-body. (11) perfect purity of works 業圓淨. The bodhisattvas carry out all kinds of beneficial works for worldlings and adherents of the two vehicles. (12) Perfect purity of benefit 利益圓淨. The Pure Land is free from all the afflictions, disasters, and fetters of the three realms. (13) perfect purity of fearlessness 無怖畏圓淨. The Pure Land is free from the harm of all māras, yamas, and other evil spirits, and thus there is nothing to fear. (14) Perfect purity of abode 住處圓淨. The abode of the Tathāgata in the Pure Land is beautifully adorned. (15) Perfect purity of path 路圓淨. The Pure Land is fully penetrated by the methods of the three ways of attaining wisdom: listening, thinking, and practicing. (16) Perfect purity of vehicle 乘圓淨. In the Pure Land, śamatha and vipaśyanā are taken as the orthodox methods of meditation. (17) Perfect purity of approach 門圓淨. In the Pure Land, emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness are taken as the correct approaches to liberation. (18) Perfect purity of bases 依止圓淨. In the Pure Land, the Dharma King who gathers immeasurable merit is considered to be the basis.

9. The five wholesome roots 五根 are: (1) 信根 the root of faith, (2) 精根 the root of effort, (3) 念根 the root of mindfulness, (4) 定根 the root of concentration, (5) 慧根 the root of wisdom.

10. The six heavens 六 天 of the desire realm (also 六欲天). Above Mount Sumeru are six heavens, each higher than the last, stretching up towards the form realm 色界. The six are: (1) The heaven of the four deva-kings 四王天, who guard the four quarters of the world below; (2) Trāyastriṃśa, the Heaven of the Thirty-three Gods 三十三天; (3) Yāma, the Heaven where the God Yāma resides 夜摩天; (4) Tuṣita, the heaven of contentment where the bodhisattva Maitreya is said to be preparing to be reborn in the world as the next kalpa's Buddha 兜率天; (5) Nirmāṇa-rati, the heaven where one's desires are magically fulfilled at will 樂變化天; (6) Paranirmita-vaśa-vartin, the heaven where one can partake of the pleasures of others, and also where Pipanyan, the king of the māras, resides 他化自在天.

11. The eight attributes of the Lotus Pond that is described in the Pure Land. The eight attributes are (1) sweetness, (2) freshness, (3) softness, (4) lightness, (5) purity, (6) scentlessness, (7) cleansing, and (8) nourishing (T 366.12.347a1).

12. Wonhyo is alluding here to the discussion in the sūtra at T 360.12.271b17 ff.

13. Direct retribution 正報 refers to the body and personality that we are born with; circumstantial retribution 依報 refers to the world, country, family, etc., in which we are born. Also referred to as 二果, 二報 , and 依正.

14. Adamantine stage (*vajra-bhūmi). The final stage of the bodhisattva path, where bodhisattvas enter into the adamantine absorption 金剛三昧. Also written with 金剛地 and 金剛心 . In Yogâcāra, this stage is equivalent to virtual enlightenment 等覺.

15. The three ranks of worthies in the path of the bodhisattva — 三賢 — also attained by lesser-vehicle practitioners: the ten abodes 十住, ten practices 十行, and ten dedications of merit 十廻向.

16. Equivalent to the ten bodhisattva grounds 十地.

17. T 245.8.828a1–2.

18. 末那四惑. The four most basic mental disturbances that come about based on the manas' appropriation of the ālayavijñāna as a self 我 (ātman): self-ignorance 我癡, self-view 我見, self-pride 我慢, and self-love 我愛. Their being arisen in the manas implies that they function subliminally, and thus cannot be suppressed by everyday waking consciousness.

19. 四緣 In Yogâcāra, a division into four types of the causes that produce all phenomena. In this case, the ideograph 緣, which is usually understood in Buddhism to mean something like “condition” has the meaning of “cause” (因) in a broad, all-inclusive sense, including all kinds of associated factors and conditions. The four causes are (1) 因緣 direct internal causes that produce a result (Skt. hetu-pratyaya), (2) 等無間緣 similar and immediately antecedent conditions (Skt. saṃanantara-pratyaya), (3) 所緣緣 Referent as condition (Skt. ālambana-pratyaya), (4) 增上緣 Causes beyond direct motivation (Skt. adhipati-pratyaya) i.e., contributory factors as causes.

20. T 1595.31.263b7–11.

21. T 1579.30.736c23–29.

22. Most students of Mahāyāna Buddhism are familiar with the ten grounds (bhūmis) of the bodhisattva path. The Yogâcārabhūmi-śāstra teaches a variety of other stage structures that can be correlated or interpolated with the ten bhūmis. One is that of the thirteen abodes, which includes the twelve bodhisattva abodes 十二住, plus the level of Buddhahood. The twelve abodes are also arranged into seven stages, or grounds, as follows: (1) 種性地 stage of having the seed, (2) 勝解行地 stage of practice through devoted interest, (3) 淨勝意樂地 stage of pure superior aspiration, (4) 行正行地 stage of carrying out correct practices, (5) 決定地 stage of determination, (6) 決定行地 stage of determined practice, (7) 到究竟地 stage of arriving at the ultimate (T 1579.31.565a1–20).

23. The source text in the sūtra has 人天 rather than 人民 ; T 360.12.268a12.

24. 三聚 Categorized in terms of their determination toward enlightenment, these are: (1) those who are certain of following correct paths 正性定聚 (正定聚), (2) those who will follow evil paths 邪性定聚 (邪定聚), and (3) those whose course is undecided 不定聚. While precise definitions of these categories vary according to the text, it is a widely-used characterization that can be seen in seminal texts from the Abhidharma, Yogâcāra, Tathāgatagarbha, and Pure Land traditions.

25. The four stages of the śrāvaka path (Skt. catvāri-phalani) are: (1) “stream-enterer”; (2) “once-returner”; (3) “non-returner”; (4) arhat. Each stage is seen as having two aspects: that of ascent into the stage and consummation of the stage. The stream-enterer succeeds in eradicating conceptual disturbances 見惑  of the three realms, experiences the fifteen kinds of mental states of the Path of Seeing, and finishing this task, enters the Path of Cultivation, thus consummating this stage. Entering into the stage of once-returner, the practitioner removes the first six of the nine qualities of afflictions removable in the Path of Cultivation and thus consummates this stage. One then proceeds to enter the level of non-returner, where one eliminates the remaining three afflictions removable in the Path of Cultivation. In the final stage of arhat, all defilements have been permanently eradicated, and one is capable of entry into nirvāṇa.

26. The four doubts constitute a category unique to the Sūtra of Immeasurable Life; they will be discussed at length below in Wonhyo's commentary.

27. The eleventh of the forty-eight vows; T 360.12.268a11–12.

28. From vow number fourteen; T 360.12.268a18–19.

29. Probably a reference to T 365.12.345b26–29.

30. T 1524.26.231a14. In the initial verse, the vow for rebirth in the Pure Land is explained, and praise is accorded to the adornment and virtues of Amitâbha and the bodhisattvas. The prose section explains the five kinds of mindfulness, including worship 禮拜, praise 讚歎, making the vow 作願, contemplation 觀察 , and dedication of merit 廻向, as well as the five results attained on rebirth in the Pure Land: drawing close to the Buddha's enlightenment 近門, participating in teaching assemblies 大會衆門, at home 宅門, in one's room 屋門, and traveling in the forest 園林遊戯地門. The former five are methods for attaining personal rebirth in Amitâbha's Pure Land, and the latter five are methods for the cultivation of virtues.

31. Taishō has face 顏, rather than eyes 眼 as found in HBJ.

32. Vaidehi was the wife of King Bimbisāra 頻婆沙羅 of Magadha, and the mother of Ajātaśatru 阿闍世 . When the king was imprisoned, she asked Śākyamuni to preach, and he responded by delivering the sermon of the Contemplation Sūtra (Guan wuliangshou jing) 觀無量壽經 . Vaidehi and Ānanda serve as the main recipients of the teaching, which consists of a series of instructions on how to contemplate in a way that will bring rebirth into the Pure Land. At the end of the sūtra, she receives assurance from the Buddha that she will be reborn in the Pure Land.

33. T 370.12.352b24–25.

34. The three kinds of buddha-lands correspond to the trikāya 三身 , and are generally understood to be (1) The land of dharma nature 法性土; the land in which the dharma-kāya 法身 abides, which has neither form nor material limitations. It is synonymous with tathatā 眞如. (2) The land of enjoyment 受用土, of which there are two types. The first is the land of reward body 報身 , and the second is the land to which bodhisattvas of the ten stages 十地 have access. (3) The land of transformation 變化土, which the response-body buddha應身 creates to give succor to unenlightened men. The various Pure Lands 淨土 are usually said to belong to this category, but as seen here, there are exceptions.

35. Following the note in HBJ, changing 自 to 有.

36. An “enjoyment land” is a land where the Buddha dwells in his enjoyment body 受用身 (saṃbhogakāya). Also referred to by the terms 報土 and 報地, it is one of three Buddha-lands and is distinguished into the two subtypes of self-enjoyment 自受用土 and enjoyment by others 他受用土. The explanations of the precise connotations of these lands and bodies vary according to the text, but one of the more extensive treatments can be found in the Mahāyānasaṃgraha. Here Wonhyo conducts a fairly thorough investigation into the discrepancies of interpretation.

37. This line is found in the Daeseung gisillon dongi jip 大乘起信論同異集, at XZJ 759.257c13.

38. T 1485.24.1020a20–22.

39. T 1666.32.579b18–25, abbreviated.

40. Marvelous form, etc. (Skt. abhirūpa). Said of the existence in the eighth bhūmi and above. The wonderful form or body, i.e., of a Buddha's saṃbhogakāya and his Buddha-land.

41. T 272.9.359b5–7, abbreviated. The source text has 無差 rather than 無邊.

42. T 278.9.626c21–627a1; greatly abbreviated.

43. T 1595.31.263c15–20, greatly abbreviated.

44. Following the HBJ note, replacing 正 with 遣.

45. This means that one would receive a body and mind that reflects the developments of activities in prior lifetimes, referring specifically to major distinctions such as being born as a human being, etc.

46. The cognitive acuity attained as a result of enlightenment that the bodhisattvas use for the task of liberating other sentient beings (Skt. pṛṣṭha-labdha-jñāna)—as contrasted with innate wisdom 根本智. Buddhas and bodhisattvas are able to utilize their discriminating capacities after attaining enlightenment, but without reifying and appropriating notions regarding their own selfhood or the intrinsic reality of objects. The existence of this clear function means that they understand and take advantage of conventional “realities” and are thus not “disconnected” from the world; also rendered as 分別智.

47. In Buddhist scriptures, the term “noble one,” originally a translation of the Sanskrit ārya refers to practitioners who have achieved some form of enlightenment, such as śrāvakas, arhats, bodhisattvas, etc.

48. Circumstantial retribution refers to the circumstances we are born into, such as societal status and geographical location, based on the karma of our prior lifetimes, as contrasted to the “direct reward” 正報 of the mind and body that one is born with.

49. The first of the ten bodhisattva bhūmis 十地— the ten bodhisattva stages to perfect enlightenment. It is this stage that is technically considered to be the first stage of transmundane cognition 出世間.

50. T 1485.24.1015c29–1016a5.

51. Buddhabhūmisūtra-śāstra T 1530.26.294a21–26.

52. T 676.16.698b2.

53. T 1589.31.71c1. Kochumuttom (p. 170) translates from the Sanskrit: An impression of deed is imagined to be in one place, // And its fruit in another place! // Why not instead recognize [the fruit] // In the same place as the impression?

54. 四塵. The four minutest forms or particles perceptible to the four senses of sight, smell, taste, and touch. From these arise the four elements 四大, from which arise the five kinds of purified cognition 五智.

55. This passage is replicated in Fazang's Tanxuan ji 探玄記 at T 1733.35.159b26 ff., but we have not yet found it in the form of a previous discussion from which we would assume Wonhyo is drawing.

56. T 676.16.710c18–24, abbreviated.

57. T 1579.30.700c20–26, abbreviated.

58. T 1595.31.264a28-b6. Great purity, great happiness, great constancy, and the great self are the four virtues 四德 taught in the Nirvāṇa-sūtra.

59. T 1579.30.661c21–662a6, extensively abbreviated. The discussion of the types of afflictions along with the processes for their removal that take place primarily in the paths of Insight and Cultivation is taken up extensively in Wonhyo's Ijang ui (Doctrine of the Two Hindrances). See HBJ 1.802b20 ff. In Charles Muller's forthcoming translation of that text in the Collected Works of Wonhyo series, this discussion will be found in the section “Counteracting and Eliminating the Hindrances.”

60. This note could be taken as a clue that the Muryangsugyeong jong-yo was written before the Ijang ui, given that Wonhyo discusses this matter at some length there yet does not refer to that discussion here.

61. Adding 非無漏 following the HBJ note.

62. T 1595.31.263b14–17.

63. The nescience entrenchments (Skt. avidyāvāsa-bhūmi) can be understood as innate nescience (ignorance), referring to nescience in its latent aspect as something innate and deeply embedded in the consciousness; it is difficult to remove, and it serves as the basis for the production of afflictions. This notion is discussed at length in the Śrīmālā-sūtra, the Sūtra of Former Activities, and Wonhyo's Doctrine of the Two Hindrances, where it is a concept under which the four distinct entrenchments 四住地 are subsumed. When the nescience entrenchments are added as a separate item to the previous four, they are spoken of as the five entrenchments 五住地惑 . See the Ijangui HBJ 1.801a-c; the Śrīmālā-sūtra T 353.12.220a, and Yingluo jing T 1485.24.1021c-1022a.

64. Four Unconditioned Noble Truths means understanding the principle of the Four Noble Truths in the sense of reality as-it-is, without relying on the explanation of the law of cause and effect. As contrasted to the Four Conditioned Noble Truths. 有作四諦.

65. T 245.8.828a1.

66. T 1611.31.834b25-c1.

67. The closest citation to this is in the Sarva-dharmâpravṛtti-nirdeśa 諸法無行經 at T 650.15.757b6.

68. Probably from the Mādhyamâgama 中阿含經; T 26.1.788b22.

69. T 220.7.868c5.

70. The three uncontaminated faculties are the ability to (1) realize the principle of the four noble truths, which one did not know before 未知當知; (2) study further the four noble truths in order to destroy defilements; that which is already known 已知; (3) know that one has fully comprehended the principle of the Four Noble Truths 具知 (倶舍論, T 1558.29.14a17). These are the last three of the twenty-two faculties 二十二根 (Skt. trīṇiindriyāṇi).

71. See T 1579.30.615a27 ff.

72. The newly influenced or active seeds when acted upon by the seven forthcoming consciousnesses, thus becoming productive; one of the two kinds of seeds. The opposite of originally existent seeds 本有種子 . In Yogâcāra theories of individuated causation, since beginningless time the ālayavijñāna has been receiving influence from the seven forthcoming consciousnesses in the form of karmic impressions. These impregnate the ālayavijñāna, causing the creation of new seeds.

73. T 1595.31.263b10–13. The text of the Mahāyānasaṃgraha has 名出出世善法 instead of 爲出 出世善法.

74. The distinction that is being made here is that between the two kinds of seeds that are understood as forming the ālayavijñāna: intrinsic seeds 本有種子, which have existed in the ālayavijñāna since beginningless time, and have the potential to produce the aggregates, fields, and elements 蘊處界 from within the eight consciousness, and newly perfumed seeds 新熏種子—pure and impure seeds that are perfumed into the eighth consciousness from the seven forthcoming consciousnesses 七識.

75. Wonhyo's Neungga gyeong yogan is not extant.

76. Following the HBJ note, changing 爲 to 無.

77. The sixteen contemplations of Sukhāvatī are (1) contemplation on the setting sun (of the pure land) 日想觀, (2) contemplation on the waters (of the pure land) 水想觀 , (3) contemplation on the land 地想觀, (4) contemplation on its jeweled trees 寶樹觀, (5) contemplation on its jeweled pond 寶池觀, (6) contemplation on its jeweled palace 寶樓觀, (7) contemplation on its flower-adorned throne 華座觀, (8) contemplation on Amitâbha's true form 像觀, (9) contemplation on Amitâbha's true body 眞身觀, (10) contemplation on Avalokitêśvara's true form 觀音觀 , (11) contemplation on Mahāsthāmaprāpta 勢至觀 , (12) contemplation on one's universal body after rebirth in the Pure Land 普觀, (13) contemplation on complex concepts (multiple bodies, etc.), 雜想觀, (14) contemplation by superior practitioners 上輩觀, (15) contemplation by middling practitioners 中輩觀 , (16) contemplation by inferior practitioners 下輩 觀. These are explained starting from T 365.12.342a4.

78. Explained starting from T 1524.26.233a6.

79. Three of the four universal vows of a buddha or bodhisattva, which are found in many East Asian Mahāyāna works. The exact wording varies from text to text, but one standard formulation is this: (1) 衆生無邊誓願度 to save all living beings without limit, (2) 煩惱無盡誓願斷 to put an end to all afflictions and delusions however numerous, (3) 法門無量誓願學 to study and learn all methods and means without end, (4) 佛道無上誓願成 to become perfect in the supreme Buddha-law.

80. T 374.12.590a21.

81. Also written as 花報. In the same way that a flower opens before the fruit develops, “flowering retribution” is contrasted to the later-experienced “fruit retribution” 果報. For example, when a person plants a tree in order to harvest its fruits, aside from properly obtaining these fruits, one is also able to get flowers, and this is called flower retribution. Sentient beings plant the causes of good and evil karmas, and based on these causal activities properly reap their fruits as fruit-retribution (also called 實報 and 正報). That which they obtain before as a kind of extra, or preliminary, effect is called flower retribution. For example, in the case of not-killing 不殺 as a causal activity, one obtains long life; this is the flower retribution. When one attains nirvāṇa in the distant future, this is the fruit retribution. In Pure Land doctrine, recitation of the Buddha's name and cultivation of goodness are causal activities, with rebirth in the Pure Land as flower retribution and the realization of enlightenment as fruit retribution.

82. The desireless samādhi, in which one realizes that there is nothing to seek—in which one realizes that objects are not to be grasped as objects of perception and desire. One of the three kinds of samādhi 三三昧.

83. Phrases expressing this point abound in the Prajñāpāramitā sūtras. See, for example, the Diamond Sūtra at T 235.8.749a10.

84. Following the HBJ note, changing 彌 to 爾.

85. We have not been able to locate this passage, or a text with this title in the canon. This citation is repeated verbatim in a number of other Pure Land commentaries.

86. Skt. pañcānantarya. The most commonly seen set of the five heinous crimes is (1) matricide (Skt. mātṛ-ghāta), (2) patricide (Skt. pitṛ-ghāta), (3) killing a saint (Skt. arhad-ghāta), (4) wounding the body of the Buddha (Skt. tathāgatasyāntike duṣṭa-citta-rudhirotpādana); (5) destroying the harmony of the saṃgha (Skt. saṃgha-bheda).

87. Ten evil deeds that are proscribed by the ten precepts 十戒: killing, stealing, committing adultery, lying, using immoral language, slandering, equivocating, coveting, becoming angry, and holding false views.

88. T 365.12.346a12–21, much abbreviated.

89. Following the cited text in Taishō, replacing 度 with 渡 here and in the next instance.

90. Following the HBJ note, replacing 波 with 渡.

91. T 360.12.272b8–10.

92. An icchantika is generally understood as a person who is not capable of attaining the Buddhist goal of enlightenment. The notion of icchantika is best known as a component in the five-nature taxonomy of proclivities for enlightenment articulated by the Yogâcāra school, where it represents a category of sentient beings who are deemed incapable of attaining nirvāṇa. The existence of such a class of beings was denied by such schools as Tiantai and Huayan, whose doctrines strongly advocated the possibility of Buddhahood for all sentient beings. This matter is discussed at length in the Buddha-nature Treatise 佛性論. For a detailed discussion of the origins of the notion of icchantika, please see the entry on this term in the DDB.

93. These two mistaken views are the main subject of this sūtra. They are discussed in detail just before this citation.

94. The whole citation comes from the Ratnagotravibhāga at T 1611.31.828c7–22. The text in the Sūtra of Neither Reifying nor Annihilating is from the very end of that text (T 668). The Vātsīputrīyas were one of the main divisions of the Sarvâstivāda school; they were considered schismatics through their insistence on the reality of the self.

95. This section is a paraphrase of the material in the Ratnagotravibhāga, rather than a direct citation. The source text is at T 1611.31.829a.

96. This discussion in the Yogâcārabhūmi can be found starting at T 1579.30.656b2.

97. A theory of the Yogâcāra school that teaches the discrimination of the innate capacities of temperaments of sentient beings into five types, these being (1) The nature predetermined for śrāvaka practices; sentient beings in this group will ultimately attain the state of arhat. (2) The nature predetermined for pratyekabuddha practices; these people will also attain to the level of arhat. The first two are commonly taken together as those with “two-vehicle proclivities.” (3) The nature predetermined for bodhisattva; whose members will ultimately attain the full enlightenment of the buddhas. (4) The indeterminate nature, whose members inherently possess the potential to attain the goals of two or three of the groups above. In practice a member of this group may first become an arhat and then become a Mahāyāna bodhisattva. (5) The nature lacking capacity for enlightenment (icchantika), that is, the group of sentient beings who lack any type of untainted seeds and therefore have no prospect of attaining either lesser or greater vehicle enlightenment. They are doomed to pass through the cycle of birth and death for all eternity.

98. In the way that the presence of heat is an indication of fire, when one approaches the fire of the undefiled wisdom of the path of insight that scorches the afflictions, one feels the “heat” when he or she reaches the immediately prior (still defiled) stage of the roots of goodness (uṣma-gata). Specifically, the first of the four roots of goodness, where one, meditating on the Four Noble Truths, practices their sixteen defining activities.

99. Skt. mūrdhâvasthā. The stage wherein, after entering the stage of patience if one does not retrogress, one enters into the path of insight. Or the stage where one falls back to the stage of warmth and into negative rebirths. Vacillating unstably with wholesome roots, one ascends to their peak on the verge of advancing or falling back, cultivating the sixteen defining activities of the Four Noble Truths. Having reached to this stage, even if one falls into the hells, one's good roots will not be severed.

100. T 1579.30.401b15–20.

101. T 1579.30.401a15.

102. T 1579.30.498a22–23.

103. T 1666.32.580b19–26.

104. Equivalent to the “ten abodes” 十住, or ten kinds of arousal of direction 十發趣, the 11th–20th of the stages in the fifty-two-stage version of the bodhisattva's path. This is the way the term was translated into Chinese by Paramârtha.

105. The source text has see the three treasures.

106. T 360.12.278a22–29.

107. It is has become common to translate the Sino-Korean ji 智 (Skt. jñāna) here as “wisdom,” rather than “cognition.” My reason for doing so is based first on the fact that in the Yogâcāra context from which this term develops, jñāna implies a more direct form of knowing based on the removal of all kinds of impediments, rather than a type of reflexive, or prior-experiential connotation as seen in the English “insight” or “wisdom.” My sense (and that of most of the Western scholars with whom I have communicated on this matter) of the English notion of wisdom, is that of something acquired over a long period of time, or after a certain set of experiences, the way, for example, that older people are said to have wisdom.Cognition, on the other hand, refers more to a direct and immediate experience of knowing something. Even if that awareness is pure or accurate — i.e. free from distortions or hindrances (顚倒 viparyāsa; 障 āvaraṇa), this can still be more accurately interpreted as an excellent form of cognition, rather than being labeled as wisdom.

108. The cognitive faculty that does everything it's supposed to do. This cognitive ability, through which one brings to fulfillment the work of saving sentient beings, is attained through the transformation of the first five consciousnesses. (Skt. kṛtya-anusthāna-jñāna).

109. Or “marvelous unerring cognitive faculty.” In Yogâcāra theory, the Buddha's cognitive faculty that is gained through the radical purification of the defiled sixth consciousness. The cognitive faculty that operates freely, without restriction, fully observing the object (Skt. pratyavekṣa-jñāna).

110. Or “cognition of essential identity”. The cognition of the equality of all things, due to the realization of emptiness. It transforms the defiled seventh consciousness into a pure form of cognition (Skt. samatā-jñāna). Depending on this cognition one gives rise to the mind of great compassion (bodhicitta). It serves to extinguish the manas or “ego-consciousness,” along with its four basic afflictive functions: self-ignorance, self-love, self-view, and self-pride.

111. As a practicality of translation, the individual characters of 最上勝 could be translated simply as “most excellent,” but since Wonhyo breaks these down separately in his explanation below, we have to clearly translate each one of them.

112. As a great round mirror reflects all forms exactly as they are, so does the cognitive function (wisdom) of the Buddha. In Yogâcāra theory, the pure cognition experienced at Buddhahood by a qualitative transmutation of the eighth consciousness. The mirror-like cognitive faculty can reflect all objects without distortion or interference. Once this cognitive faculty is enabled, the mind and its various factors function in accordance (Skt. ādarśa-jñāna).

113. Citation not located.

114. The yojana is an Indian measure of distance. Depending upon the source, either seven or nine miles, the distance appropriate for one day's travel for an emperor.

115. Source not found.

116. 1824.42.20a01.

117. T 1579.30.668b1–6. Greatly abbreviated.

118. T 374.12.524c7–8.

119. This discussion about the relative numbers of buddhas and sentient beings, worked through from a logical perspective is carried out in much greater detail in Wonhyo's Simmun hwajaeng non at HBJ 1.839c. This is translated by A. Charles Muller at <>. December, 2009.

120. T 1666.32.581b21–27.

121. 邊地. The border land to Amitâbha's Pure Land, where the lax and haughty 懈 慢 are detained for five hundred years, also called 胎 宮 womb-palace and 邊界border-realm.

122. Or “nine classes.” Buddhist scriptures commonly define such things as afflictions, heavenly rebirths, faculties of sentient beings, and so forth into nine categories, which are the three categories of superior, middling, and inferior 上中下, further divided into the same three, resulting in nine.