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Axiom Mirror of the Three Teachings (Samga Gwigam 《三家龜鑑》) by Hyujeong

Translated by A. Charles Muller

June 18, 2017

[Updated: 2017-06-18T17:29:41.281+09:00]


Table of Contents

1. Introduction
2. Samga Gwigam 三家龜鑑

1. Introduction

1.1. Hyujeong

Hyujeong (1520–1604) was a Joseon dynasty Seon monk who can be counted among the five most important figures in Korean Buddhist history; commonly known in Korea by the respectful title Seosan Daesa 西山大師. He was an influential teacher and writer, who is said to have guided hundreds of students, a number of whom became eminent Seon masters in their own right. He played a major role in consolidating the forms of study and practice of Korean Seon which would, by and large, remain in place down to modern times. What has made Hyujeong most respected in the broad view of Korean history was his role in the creation and guidance of an army of monks, which played a decisive role in the eventual repulsion of the Japanese invasion by the armies of Hideyoshi Toyotomi 秀吉豊臣. In addition to serving in this unusual capacity of military leader, Seosan was a first-rate Seon master and the author of a number of important religious texts, the most important of which are his Samga gwigam 三家龜鑑 (a comparative summary of the three teachings of Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism) and Seonga gwigam 禪家龜鑑, a guide to Seon practice (translated by Jorgensen, 2015). Both texts are studied by Korean monks down to the present. Like most monks of the Joseon period, he had been initially educated in Neo-Confucian philosophy. Dissatisfied, he wandered through the mountain monasteries, eventually joining the saṃgha. Later, after making a name for himself as a teacher, he was made arbiter of the Seon school by queen Munjeong. He soon resigned from this responsibility, returning to the itinerant life, advancing his Seon studies and teaching at monasteries all around Korea. He died at the age of 85, leaving behind some 1000 disciples, 70 of whom were monks and nuns, and many of whom held a prominent role in the later transmission of Joseon Buddhism. Hyujeong is also known for his efforts in the continuation of the project of the unification of Buddhist doctrinal study and practice. He is considered the central figure in the revival of Joseon Buddhism, and most major streams of modern Korean Seon trace their lineages back to him through one of his four main disciples: Yujeong 惟政; Eongi 彦機, Taeneung 太能 and Ilseon 一禪, all four of whom were assistants to Seosan during the war with Japan.

1.2. Philosophical Context for the Treatise

One of the distinctive characteristics of medieval Korean philosophy is the breadth, depth, and sophistication of its Buddhist-Confucian philosophical discourse and debate, which is unmatched in China, despite the fact that the most of the origins of the discourse develop from Tang and Sung literature. Thus, there are a number of selections in this volume that deal with this relationship from the perspective of either a Buddhist or a Confucian scholar. But Confucians in Goryeo and Joseon Korea were quite often also Buddhists, and virtually all literate Buddhist monks had some degree of Confucian training, since it was a central component of advanced education. So while the interreligious discourse between these two traditions was sometimes polemical and adversarial, much of it was also conciliatory and inclusive—to one degree or another. Jeong Dojeon's critiques of Buddhism were of course wholly one-sided, but Gihwa's 己和 Hyeonjeong non, written as a response to the essays by Jeong Dojeon (鄭道傳 pen name: Sambong 三峰1342–1398), while defending Buddhism, ultimately sought inclusiveness and conciliation.

The main standpoint taken by inclusivist Buddhists such as Gihwa was that of the “unity of the three teachings” (三教合一, 三教一致, etc.)—a notion which originated in China, and was articulated in detail by Buddhist scholars such as Zongmi 宗密. This approach maintains that when the three teachings of Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism are deeply and thoroughly understood, it can be said that they are fundamentally in agreement with each other in terms of underlying principles. For example, the mainstream East Asian forms of all three traditions tended to regard the human mind as something that was intrinsically good 性善説. Evil behavior represents a sort of deviation from this original goodness, but the evil behavior can be corrected, purified, and overcome by proper discipline and practice—cultivation.

Although the programs of cultivation promulgated by each of the three traditions have distinct tendencies, these differences can be seen as being complementary to each other, rather than contradictory. For example, Confucian values and practices tend to focus on the behavior and role of the human being in his interaction with society, which is guided by the value system developed within the family. Daoism tends to pay attention to subtler issues of the tendency of people to try to manipulate things, to force things in an unnatural way. The Daode jing and the Zhuangzi show the folly our attempts to manipulate the world to our own ends, and provide numerous lessons from the natural world to guide us on the right course. We need not withdraw from the world, but we should know where to stop. Buddhism focuses even more than Daoism on introspection and the awareness of the function of the mind. And we need to remain aware of the fact when the word “Buddhism” is being used in this discourse, it is mainly Seon (Zen, Chan) Buddhism, which tends, even more than other forms of Buddhism, to focus squarely on the riddance of mistaken views and the attainment of insight into reality. 1

But (as I have pointed out recently in a recent monograph), from the point of view of the study of comparative philosophy/religion, we should not take for granted the fact of this attempted inclusivism (or even the very possibility of the Confucian and Buddhist leaders engaging each other in debate), as something that could occur so easily or naturally. In the history of world religions, it is not all that often that we see the proponents of competing religions engaging each other in meaningful and substantive debate. 2 It is less often that we see such extensive and successful attempts at mutual inclusion, or syncretism, between two traditions. 3

For this level of sophisticated discussion to occur among such competing traditions, it is necessary for them to share some sort of paradigm, some philosophical worldview that allows them to critique and evaluate it each other. Beyond their shared use of the classical Chinese idiom, the Confucians and the Buddhists shared in the grounding of their ideas in the essence-function paradigm (Kor. che-yong; Ch. ti-yong; 體用). This paradigm is usually directly invoked in their texts (as it is in several places in Hyujeong's work below), but even when it is not, it is implied, whether consciously or not.

This essence-function paradigm applies in a number of different ways, but is most importantly seen in the three-tradition-spanning view that the mind is, in its most fundamental state, good, kind, and wise. This can be seen in the humaneness of Confucianism, the various natural metaphors for original purity/simplicity/profundity in Daoism (the infant, uncarved block, etc.), and the bodhi and Buddha-nature 佛性 of Buddhism. In Confucianism, the originally correct nature goes awry in the form of deceptions and selfishness. 4 In Daoism, self-centered efforts also distort the function of the Dao. In East Asian Buddhism, once the mind moves into activity, there is the possibility of it becoming turbid, afflicted. 5 Most of the practices concerned with the correction of these tendencies in each of the traditions have analogs or direct equivalents in the other two traditions.

That being said, Hyujeong and other Buddhist masters certainly do not consider Confucianism and Daoism to be on a par with Buddhism as methods of attaining enlightenment. He is, after all a Buddhist, and a Seon Buddhist. Therefore, this essay on the three teachings is not at all balanced in terms of its treatment of the three—approximately two-thirds of it is devoted to Buddhism, with Confucianism and Daoism sharing the other third about equally.

The order of the arrangement has significance, with Confucianism coming first, Daoism second, and Buddhism third. Hyujeong doesn't say it directly, but we can infer that Confucianism is understood to be a relatively introductory level of teaching, with Daoism being a bit more profound, and Buddhism being the real core of the path.

Hyujeong sees the main value of Confucianism in its teaching of self-reflection on one's behavior, and the learning of the discipline of prudence in speech and activity. The notion of “the Noble Man being cautious when he is alone” 6 turns into the centerpiece of the discussion, and the section is crammed full of quotes from, and allusions to the tropes of the major Confucian and Neo-Confucian masters.

Daoism is a teaching of a higher level of subtlety: learning the important lessons of wu-wei, not manipulating people, not forcing things, observing the way that nature achieves all of its functions without causing any trouble. Again, the discussion is packed with citations, in this case mainly from the two basic Daoist classics—the Daodejing and the Zhuangzi.

The section on Buddhism is, after all, exclusively Seon-oriented, primarily composed of citations or allusions to the major Chan classics. It is divided into two main sections: a section on the “direct teaching,” comprised of the most recondite (direct, sudden) of the Chan sayings, and a section labeled as the “manifest traces” which takes a an easier and more expedient approach.


2. Samga Gwigam 三家龜鑑

By Hyujeong 淸虛休靜

2.1. Confucianism 儒教


[HBJ070616a06 ]孔子曰、天何言哉。董仲舒曰、道之大原出於天。
[HBJ070616a07 ]蔡沉曰、天者嚴、其心之所自出此、
[HBJ070616a08 ]卽周茂叔所謂無極而太極也。

Confucius said: “Does heaven speak?” 7 . Dong Zhongshu said: “The great source of the Way originates in heaven.” 8 Cai Shen said: “Heaven is glorious—the place from which the mind comes forth.” 9 This is the same as Zhou Maoshu's 10 “Non-ultimate yet great ultimate.”


[HBJ070616a09 ]書傳序曰、「精一執中、堯舜禹相傳之心、法也。
[HBJ070616a10 ]建中建極、>商湯周武相傳之心、法也。
[HBJ070616a11 ]曰德、曰仁、曰敬、曰誠、言雖殊而理則一。
[HBJ070616a12 ]無非所以明此心之妙也。」吁心
[HBJ070616a13 ]之德、其盛矣乎。

The preface to the Shuchuan 11 says: “Focusing their energies and holding to the mean, the mind that Yao, Shun, and Yu transmitted was the model. 12 The mind that Tang of the Shang 13 and Wu of the Zhou 14 transmitted in succession was the model. Although the terms ‘virtue,’ ‘humaneness,’ ‘reverence,’ and ‘sincerity’ are different, they are one in principle. Having no place that it does not illuminate, this mind is marvelous.” 15 Aah, the virtues of the mind are indeed abundant!


[HBJ070616a14 ]中庸性道教三句、亦名異而實同、體用備焉。
[HBJ070616a15 ]此乃孔孟傳授心法。
[HBJ070616a16 ]道由性而出、言道而不言性、則人不知道之本原。
[HBJ070616a17 ]道由教而明、言道而不言教、
[HBJ070616a18 ]則人不知道之功用。故、道之一字、包性包教。
[HBJ070616a19 ]推其本原、必歸之天命。大學之三綱八目、
[HBJ070616a20 ]亦不外乎是也。

Although the terms in the three sentences in the Doctrine of the Mean on the nature, way, and education, are different, 16 they are essentially the same, fully including essence and function. 17 This is the model of the mind transmitted by Confucius and Mencius. The Way springs forth from the nature; yet if we mention the “way” and do not mention the “nature” then people will not know the source of the Way. The Way is revealed through education, so if we mention the Way and do not mention education, then people will not know the functions of the Way. Therefore, the one word “Way” includes nature and includes education. To reach to its origin, one must return to the heavenly mandate. The three bonds and eight items of the Great Learning also do not reside outside of this.


[HBJ070616a21 ]周易先言道而後言性。此道字、是統體一太極。
[HBJ070616a22 ]子思先言性而後言道。此道字各具一太極。
[HBJ070616a24 ]世之言道者、高則入於荒唐、卑則滯於形氣。
[HBJ070616b01 ]今言道字非他、循性之謂也。

The Zhouyi (Yijing) first mentions the Way and then mentions the Nature. In this case the word “Way” as a whole embodies one Great Polarity. 18 Zi Si 19 first mentioned the Nature and then mentioned the Way. Here, the word “Way” includes the one Great Ultimate in each individual case. The word “way” used in worldly conversation, when reaching its heights becomes absurdity; when debased it is bound up with physicality and material force. The present Way under discussion means none other than “following one's nature.”


[HBJ070616b02 ]戒懼是保守天理、幾未動之敬也。愼獨是檢防人欲、幾已動之敬也。
[HBJ070616b04 ]故君子之心、常存敬畏。
[HBJ070616b05 ]謹獨一念已發時工夫、戒懼一念未發前工夫。

“Being apprehensive” means that one guards the principle of heaven—it is the reverence one has before one's faculties are stimulated into activity. “Cautious when alone” 20 means that one is on guard against human desires. It is the reverence that functions after one's faculties have been stimulated into activity. Therefore the mind of the Noble Man always remains in a state of deep reverence. “Cautious when alone” is the effort one makes once a thought has arisen; “being apprehensive” is the effort one makes when a thought has not yet arisen.


[HBJ070616b06 ]然纔知未發、便是已發、卽不中。
[HBJ070616b07 ]中則天地萬物爲一體。
[HBJ070616b08 ]幽則有鬼神。明則有日月。此亦謹獨一句。
[HBJ070616b10 ]涵養靜工夫、一箇主宰嚴肅也。省察動工夫、
[HBJ070616b11 ]情念纔發覺治也。故曰、精以察之、一以守之、 卽所謂顧諟天之明命。

Yet once the barest form of awareness has not yet arisen, it is immediately completely arisen, with no moment in between. If one experiences the Mean, then one forms a single body with heaven and earth and the myriad things. 21 When this moment is in the darkness there are the ancestral spirits, in the brightness there are the sun and moon. 22 This is indeed the [meaning of] the single phrase “being cautious when one is alone.” The work of nurturing stillness, means that in each case one is in strict control. The work of reflecting on one's activity means that when thoughts and feelings have barely arisen, one is aware of them and corrects them. Hence it is said, “Use the vitality to analyze it, use one-pointedness to preserve it.” 23 This is what is known as reflection on the illustrious mandate of heaven.


[HBJ070616b12 ]心一放卽悠悠蕩蕩、無所歸着。心必操、意必誠、言必謹、動必愼。內外交修之道、一念之善、慶雲景星。一念之惡、烈風暴雨。堯舜桀紂、在此一句。然心之虛靈知覺、一而已矣。

24 Once the mind is given free rein, it becomes wild and uncontrollable, with no way to bring it back. So the mind must be controlled, the will must be made sincere, speech must be prudent, and one's actions must be cautious. In the way of mutual cultivation of inner and outer, one good thought is like a rainbow and a lucky star. One evil thought is like a violent gale and a torrential rain. The ways of Yao-and-Shun 25 or Jie-and-Zhou 26 can be summed up in this one phrase. Even so, the mind's subtle luminosity and its capacity for awareness is the same, without a doubt.

渾厚包涵從容、是廣大之氣象。促迫偏窄輕躁、非有德之氣象。省欲則心靜、心靜則事自簡。少言沈默最玅。知道則言自簡。謹言乃爲學第一工夫。言不謹而能存心者鮮矣。多言、最使人心流蕩、而氣亦損。夢寐、精神亦不安。纔舒放、卽當收歛、纔言語、便思簡默。必使一念不妄起、一言不妄發。庶乎寡過。

Candor, tolerance, and flexibility—these are the attitudes characteristic of those with vast minds. Tenseness, partiality, and rashness—these are not the attitudes of the man of virtue. If you reduce your desires, your mind will be calmed; if your mind is calmed, then your affairs will naturally be simplified. Speaking little and keeping silent are most excellent. If you know the Way, then your words will naturally be economized. Prudent speech is the first effort to be made. Those whose speech is imprudent and who are able to maintain mindfulness are rare indeed. Talking too much is the main cause of people's minds' wandering, and losing energy. When you dream at night, your spirit will be unsettled. When you begin to relax, you should collect yourself. When you begin to speak, you should be aware to economize your speech. You must make sure not to let one thought mistakenly arise and not to recklessly speak a single word. Doing this, you will lessen your mistakes.

聞人過失、如聞父母之名。耳可聞而口不可言。是非終日有、不聽自然無。來說是非者、便是是非人。待左右、當嚴而惠。左右之言、不可輕信、必審其實。親愛之言、亦不可偏聽。若聽一面說、便見相離別。輕言輕動之人、不可與深計。易喜易怒者亦然。欲人無聞、莫若勿言、欲人無知、莫若勿爲。

You should hear about the mistakes of others the way you hear your parents' names. Your ears should hear, but your mouth should not speak. Although there are arguments all day about right and wrong, if you don't listen they will naturally disappear. Those who come to you to talk about right and wrong are faultfinders. In dealing with your advisors, be strict but kind. Don't lightly believe the words of your advisors—you must investigate the facts for yourself. Don't one-sidedly accept the words of your intimates. If you hear one side of the story, you will soon see yourself separating from one of the parties. Don't make serious plans with someone who speaks and acts lightly, or with someone who gets happy or indignant easily. If you want what you say not to be heard by others, you'd be better off not saying it. If you don't want what you are doing to be known by others, you'd be better off not doing it.


[HBJ070616b13 ]大丈夫心事、當如靑天白日、使人得而見之。
[HBJ070616b15 ]奢侈華麗、人之大惡。淳朴質直、人之大德。 [朱子文集 「武侯爲漢復讐之心、如靑天白日、人人得而見之」]

The aspirations of the high officials should be accessible to the people like the blue sky and the bright sun. Extravagance, conceit, pomp, and gaudiness are the great evils of people. Simple honesty and straightforwardness are the great virtues of people.


[HBJ070616b17 ]古賢時然後言、人不厭其言。樂然後笑、人不厭其笑。
[HBJ070616b18 ]義然後取、人不厭其取。
[HBJ070616b19 ]君子行有不得、皆反諸己、而無責人之心、心常洒落。
[HBJ070616b20 ]常人纔不得於天、卽怨天。纔不合於人、卽尤人。
[HBJ070616b21 ]心常不寧、忿懥勞擾。

The ancient worthy spoke at the right time, so people did not tire of his words. He laughed when he was happy, and people did not tire of his laughter; he took when it was right to do so, so people did not tire of his taking. 27 When the Noble Men take action but do not achieve their aims, they reflect on themselves; not having an attitude of blaming others, they are always frank and open-hearted. When regular people fail to get some trivial thing from Heaven, they rail against Heaven. When they don't get along with others in the slightest way, they carp at them. They are always unsettled, upset, and annoyed.


[HBJ070616b23 ]人爲外物所動者、只是淺人。
[HBJ070616b24 ]有才而露、亦是淺。深則不露。
[HBJ070616c01 ]識量大、則毀譽欣慼、不足以動其心。
[HBJ070616c02 ]聖人之心、應物卽休、元不少動、
[HBJ070616c03 ]心誠色溫、氣和辭婉、必能動人。

Those who are moved by external things are simply shallow people; to have ability and show it off—this is also shallow. The deep do not show off. When the capacity of one's consciousness is great, then censure and praise, joy and sorrow are not able to move his mind. The minds of the sages respond to things and then let go, originally not being moved in the slightest. Their minds are sincere and their faces are warm; their temperament is gentle and their words are mild, and are always able to motivate people.


[HBJ070616c04 ]惟正可以服人、故寧可正而不足、不可邪而有餘。正其義、
[HBJ070616c05 ]不謀其利。明其道、不計其功。
[HBJ070616c07 ]一行有失、百行難補、故防末在本。

It is only correctness that can really change people; therefore it is better to be correct and not have enough rather than to be wrong and have surplus. The meaning of correctness cannot be calculated in terms of benefits. When one illuminates the Way, one does not calculate its merits. If there is error in one activity, all activities will be difficult to correct. Therefore preservation of the branches takes place in the roots.


[HBJ070617a01 ]人多於快意之事、忘却道。
[HBJ070617a02 ]爲政通下情爲急 處事尤宜、心平氣和。
[HBJ070617a03 ]事最不可輕忽。雖至微至易者、皆當以愼重處之。

Most people wantonly pursue their own desires, forgetting about the Way. In running the government, one must be attentive to the feelings of the people, handling matters in the proper way, even-mindedly and calmly. Affairs cannot be treated lightly. Even the most trivial and the most easy matters must all be taken seriously.


[HBJ070617a05 ]見人善、尋己善。見人惡、尋己惡。從也、
[HBJ070617a06 ]改也、倶爲我師。
[HBJ070617a07 ]結朋須勝己、似我不如無。毀吾者師、
[HBJ070617a08 ]譽吾者賊。
[HBJ070617a09 ]非莫、非於飾、非過、莫過於文過。
[HBJ070617a10 ]以德報寃、以善報惡。人若唾面、不拭自乾。

If you see goodness in a person, seek for that goodness in yourself. If you see evil someone, find that evil in yourself. By following one and correcting the other, both can be my teacher. You should make friends with those who are better than oneself; it is better to have no friends at all than to have a friend that is just like you. 28 The one who criticizes me is my teacher, and the one who praises me is a thief. There is nothing worse than pretense, no wrong worse than covering up one's wrongs. It is by virtue that you overcome enmity; it is through goodness that you overcome hatred. If someone spits in your face, it will dry by itself without your wiping it.


[HBJ070617a12 ]覺人詐而不形於言、有餘味。
[HBJ070617a13 ]卽人言可以見所養之淺深。
[HBJ070617a14 ]知足者、貧賤亦樂。不知足者、富貴亦憂。
[HBJ070617a16 ]知安則榮、知足則富。
[HBJ070617a17 ]人無百歲人、枉作千年計。
[HBJ070617a18 ]大厦千間、夜臥八尺。良田萬頃、日食二升。

If you are aware of the deceit of others and you don't express it verbally, there is an aftertaste. 29 Thus, the words of people can be used to distinguish the depth or shallowness of their cultivation. If you are satisfied, you will be happy even if you are poor and of low status. If you are unsatisfied, you will be unhappy even with wealth and status. Knowing contentment then you can prosper; being satisfied then you will be wealthy. Even though no one lives for a hundred years, in vain people concoct thousand-year plans. A high building has a thousand spaces, but to sleep at night you only need eight feet. Good fields have hundreds of acres, but the food one consumes daily is less than a liter.


[HBJ070617a20 ]人皆愛珠玉、我愛賢師友。
[HBJ070617a21 ]黃金一千兩未爲貴、得人一語勝千金。
[HBJ070617a22 ]有名不用鐫頑石、路上行人口是碑。
[HBJ070617a23 ]平生不作皺眉事、世上應無切齒人。
[HBJ070617a24 ]貧㞐閙市無相識、富住深山有遠親。
[HBJ070617b01 ]凡事留人情、後來好相見。若要人重我、
[HBJ070617b02 ]無過我重人。

Everyone loves rare gems, but I love worthy teachers and comrades. A thousand liang of gold will not make you noble, but gaining one word of appreciation from someone surpasses a thousand pieces of gold. Fame cannot be used to carve into hard stone—it is the words of the people in the street that become your epitaph. If you usually do not frown and scowl, you shouldn't have people in this world who resent you. In poverty, you live in the city without a friend; wealthy, you live deep in the mountains having intimates at a distance. No matter what, you should restrain your common emotions, and henceforth your encounters with people will go well. If you want people to respect you, there is nothing better than respecting others.


[HBJ070617b03 ]有客來相訪、如何是治生。恆存方寸地、
[HBJ070617b04 ]留與子孫耕。
[HBJ070617b05 ]爲子死孝、爲臣死忠。人無忠孝之心、
[HBJ070617b06 ]其餘不足觀也。
[HBJ070617b07 ]心統性情 君子存心。恆若鑑空衡平、
[HBJ070617b08 ]與天地合其德。

A guest comes and asks, how is one to make a living? Always keeping a small plot of land, one can keep it for the farms of one's descendants. To be a [good] son, you should be filial until death; to be a [good] minister, you should be loyal until death. If people lack the attitude of loyalty and filial piety, anything else they have is not worth considering. Since the mind controls our nature and feelings, the noble man keeps presence of mind. If you are always fair and balanced, your virtue can match heaven and earth.


[HBJ070617b09 ]於戲三月忘味、終日如愚、此聖賢忘內之樂也。
[HBJ070617b10 ]不貴黃屋、不賤陋巷、此聖賢忘外之樂也。
[HBJ070617b11 ]然則聖賢之樂、不在內外、當在何處。
[HBJ070617b13 ]古之詩人、觀鳶魚、而知道之費隱。聖人觀川流、
[HBJ070617b14 ]而知道之不息。今之學者、其可不盡心乎。

In a state of play, forgetting flavors for three months; 30 spending the whole day as if a fool—this is the sages' and worthies' enjoyment of forgetting the internal. Not prizing the emperor's palace, having no disdain for the dirty alleyways—this is the sages' and worthies' enjoyment of forgetting the external. So if the enjoyment of the sages and worthies resides in neither the internal nor the external, where is it to be found? An ancient poet, observing the kites and fish was able to know the seclusion of the way. 31 The sages, observing the flow of the rivers, were able to know the incessant motion of the Way. Now, how can the present scholars not devote their minds fully to this?


[HBJ070617b16 ]文王之詩 無聲無臭之天子、思子亦引之、
[HBJ070617b17 ]以結中庸之義。吁、卽吾渾然未發之中也。
[HBJ070617b18 ]此周茂叔所謂太極本無極也。

The poetry of King Wen [mentions] the soundless and odorless son of heaven, and Si Zi also cited it, in order to finalize the gist of the Doctrine of the Mean. Alas! This is my “mean” of the unarisen whole state. This is the “original non-ultimate of the great ultimate” named by Zhou Maoshu.

2.2. Daoism 道教


[HBJ070617c04 ]
[HBJ070617c05 ]有物渾成先天地生 至大至妙至靈至虛。
[HBJ070617c06 ]浩浩蕩蕩、歷歷明明。方隅不可㝎其居、
[HBJ070617c07 ]劫數不能窮其壽。吾不知其名、
[HBJ070617c08 ]强名曰心。

There is something that is naturally complete which was born before heaven and earth. It is the most great, the most subtle, the most numinous, the most vacant. Vast and overflowing, clear and distinct. The cardinal directions and the intermediate directions cannot delimit its location; numerous kalpas cannot exhaust its life span. I do not know its name; if forced to name it, I call it “mind.” 32


[HBJ070617c09 ]亦曰谷虛、明神、靈妙。遂爲三才之本、萬物之母。
[HBJ070617c10 ]
[HBJ070617c11 ]有名無名、有念無念、同出於斯。故曰、
[HBJ070617c12 ]玄之又玄、衆妙之門。

It is also called “vacant like a valley,” “luminously spiritual,” and “numinously subtle.” In the end it is the source of the three generative forces 33 it is the mother of the myriad things. 34 The named and the nameless; the thinking and the thoughtless, are produced together from here. Mystery within mystery, the gate to all marvels. 35


[HBJ070617c13 ]體曰道、用曰德。用無體不生、體無用不妙故
[HBJ070617c14 ]備擧道德。請捨諸緣 以觀其妙。

Its essence is called “Way;” its function is called “power.” 36 Function, lacking essence, cannot arise; essence, lacking function, has no marvel. Therefore the Way and its power include each other; I invite you to let go of all entanglements in order to observe its marvels.


[HBJ070617c16 ]聖人(無名)神人(無功)至人(無己) 抱道德之眞實。
[HBJ070617c17 ]虛心無我 常遊於無物之域、以仁義天下國家爲浮華。
[HBJ070617c19 ]堯舜之道、可以爲衆父、不可以爲衆父父。

The sage [who is nameless], the spirit-man [who is effortless], and the perfected man [who is egoless], 37 embrace the substance of the Way and its power. Their emptied minds having no self, they always sport in the realm of no-thing, regarding humaneness, justice, the kingdom and its major houses as floating flowers. The way of Yao and Shun can be regarded as the father of the multitude, but cannot be regarded as the father of the father of the multitude.

人世大夢也。
[HBJ070617c21 ]大夢之中、必有大覺之王、
[HBJ070617c22 ].
[HBJ070618a01 ]故大覺然後 知此其大夢也。然則莊周與胡蝶、
[HBJ070618a02 ]倶爲夢也。

The world of men is a great dream. Within a great dream there has to be a king of Great Awakening; therefore after Great Awakening we know that it is a great dream. 38 But in the case of Zhuang Zhou and the butterfly, both are a dream. 39


[HBJ070618a03 ]人法天、天法道、道法自然、故眞人抱一專氣。
[HBJ070618a04 ]
[HBJ070618a05 ]養生如牧羊鞭其後、
[HBJ070618a06 ]聖人不爭故、天下莫與爭。聖人不自大故、
[HBJ070618a07 ]能成其大。
[HBJ070618a08 ]天道無親、常與善人。天道不言、亦常善應。

Man patterns himself after heaven; heaven patterns itself after the Way, and the Way patterns itself after things just as they are. 40 Therefore the true man embraces the one and focuses his energies. Nourishing life is like a herd of sheep after they have been whipped. It is because the sage does not compete, that no one in the world can compete with him. 41 Because the sage does not consider himself to be great, his greatness is accomplished. 42 The way of heaven has no favorites—it always uplifts the good. 43 The way of heaven does not speak, but always responds well. 44


[HBJ070618a10 ]天道若張弓、損有餘而補不足。人道却不然、
[HBJ070618a11 ]損不足而奉有餘。

The Way of heaven is like stretching a bow: to remove where there is excess, and add where there is lack; the way of people is different: they take away where there is need, and add where there is surplus. 45


[HBJ070618a12 ]五色令人盲、五聲令人聾、然美色爲甚。
[HBJ070618a13 ]一爲花箭、一爲伐性斧、故聖人爲腹不爲目。 46
[HBJ070618a15 ]天之穿之、日夜無止。衆人顧塞其竇、
[HBJ070618a16 ]道人被 47 懷玉故。德有所長、形有所忘。
[HBJ070618a17 ]甚愛必大費、多藏必厚亡。故禍莫大於不知足。

The five colors blind the eyes; the five sounds deafen the ears, 48 and it is even worse with a woman's beauty. In one case it is like the stem of a flower; in another case it is like a lethal axe; therefore the sage acts from his gut, and not from his eyes. 49 Heaven sees through him, day and night without rest. All of the people reflect and close up the holes; the man of the Way wears coarse clothes, yet keeps a jewel in his bosom. 50 When one's virtue is developed, the bodily form is forgotten. 51 Extreme love entails great cost, much hoarding entails deep loss. 52 Therefore there is no greater misfortune than not knowing when one has enough. 53


[HBJ070618a19 ]信言不美、美言不信。又輕諾、必寡信。
[HBJ070618a20 ]多易必多難。
[HBJ070618a21 ]大功無功、至親無禮。眞喜無笑、眞哭無聲。
[HBJ070618a23 ]空谷善應、虛室生白。人能虛己而遊世、
[HBJ070618a24 ]孰能害之。

Honest words are not pretty, pretty words are not honest. 54 And if you give your word too easily, few will believe you. Much ease turns into much difficulty; 55 a great effort is effortless; in the deepest form of intimacy, there is no propriety. True happiness is without laughter, true wailing is voiceless. An empty valley echoes well, and a vacant room is completely bright. 56 If a man is able to be free of self and travel the world, who can harm him? 57


[HBJ070618b01 ]虛名浮利、縱得之、未必福。縱失之、未必禍。
[HBJ070618b02 ]
[HBJ070618b03 ]古之得道者、窮亦樂、通亦樂。此所樂、
[HBJ070618b04 ]非窮通、窮通乃外物也。

Hollow fame and superficial gain: even if you obtain them, they will not necessarily bring good fortune, and even if you lose them, it will not necessarily bring misfortune. Those who attained the Way in ancient times were happy when they failed, and were happy when they were successful. Their happiness had nothing to do with their failure or success, since failure and success are external things.


[HBJ070618b05 ]世之籠爵祿者、因其所好而籠之。我若無所好、
[HBJ070618b06 ]則超出乎萬物之外、誰得而籠之。
[HBJ070618b08 ]人若呼我牛、呼我馬、我倶應之。我有其實。
[HBJ070618b09 ]人與之名。我若不受、再受其殃。
[HBJ070618b10 ]謙讓下心、處衆之德也。江海能爲百谷王者、
[HBJ070618b11 ]以其善下之故也。

Rank and salary are the cages of this world, as it is based on what people like that they are caged. If there is nothing that I like, then I can step out beyond the myriad things, and who can cage me? If people call me a cow, or if people call me a horse, I respond to both of these. If I am so in actuality, people name me accordingly. If people assign me a name, and I don't accept, to accept it a second time will lead to misfortune. 58 The attitude of placing oneself below, is the power of the position of the multitudes. The reason that the ocean is the king of all rivers, is because it is skillfully below them. 59


[HBJ070618b12 ]天無不覆、地無不載。君子法之、
[HBJ070618b13 ]人心生一念、天地悉皆知。
[HBJ070618b14 ]人間私語、天聞若雷。暗室虧心、神目如電。

There is nothing that heaven does not cover, 60 and there is nothing that the earth does not support. 61 The noble man patterns himself after this. When a person gives rise to a single thought, heaven and earth are fully aware of it. People whisper their secrets, and heaven hears it as if it were thunder. In a dark room one harbors a guilty conscience, and the spirits see it as if it were lightning.


[HBJ070618b16 ]君子愽取衆善、以輔其身。書不必孔子之言、
[HBJ070618b17 ]藥不必扁鵲之方。合義者從、愈病者良。

The noble man selects the good things from many places in order to add to himself. His books need not necessarily be the words of Confucius, and his medicines need not be prepared according to Bian Que. 62 If the words make sense, he follows them; if the medicine heals sickness, he regards it as good.


[HBJ070618b19 ]萬竅之風、出一虛、入一虛。百家之論、
[HBJ070618b20 ]是一心、非一心。
[HBJ070618b21 ]此心天地之逆旅、天地萬物之逆旅。
[HBJ070618b22 ]此心出無本入無竅、有實而無乎處
[HBJ070618b23 ]常在動用中。

The winds that blow through a thousand crevices come out of a single atmosphere, and enter into a single atmosphere. The discussions of all the philosophers are exactly this one mind, and are not this one mind. This mind is the inn of heaven and earth, and heaven and earth are the inn of the myriad things. This mind comes forth from the beginningless, and enters into the endless; it has substance, but no location. 63


[HBJ070618b24 ]通於一而萬事畢。虛於心而鬼神服。喪己於物
[HBJ070618c01 ]失性於俗、謂之倒置之民。
[HBJ070618c02 ]建之以無極、主之以太一。動若水、
[HBJ070618c03 ]靜若鏡、應若響。

If you understand one, all tasks are completed. If you empty your mind, the spirits submit. Those who lose themselves in things, and losing their nature in the mundane, are called “upside-down people.” Be established in the non-polarity, be based in the great unity. When you move, be like water; when you are still, be like a mirror; when you respond, be like an echo.


[HBJ070618c04 ]人有畏影避迹者、足愈數而迹愈多、
[HBJ070618c05 ]走愈疾而影愈急。不知處陰以休影、處靜以息迹。

There are people who are afraid of their own shadows and who try to escape from their own tracks. As their steps increase, their tracks increase more; the faster they run, the more the shadow speeds up. They don't know that they can get rid of the shadow by staying in the shade, and can stop their tracks by staying still. 64


[HBJ070618c07 ]道不可見、道不可聞。知者不言、言者不知。
[HBJ070618c08 ]又言者在意、得意忘言者。可以言故。
[HBJ070618c09 ]視之無形、聽之無聲。

The Way cannot be seen; the Way cannot be heard. 65 Those who know do not speak, those who speak do not know. 66 Furthermore, words contain meaning, when you get the meaning, you can forget the words. 67 This is because we can use words. Look for it, it has no form; listen for it, it has no sound. 68

2.3. Buddhism 佛教


[HBJ070619a04 ]
[HBJ070619a05 ]有一物於此 從本以來 昭昭靈靈。
[HBJ070619a06 ]不曾生、不曾滅、名不得、狀不得。
[HBJ070619a07 ]佛祖出世、無風起浪。

There is one thing here, 69 which has from the beginning been luminous and vivid. It has never been born, and it has never been extinguished. Its name is unknowable and its form is unknowable. The buddhas and patriarchs appearing in the world are like waves arising without the wind.


[HBJ070619a08 ]然法有多義、人有多機、不妨施設。
[HBJ070619a09 ]强立種種名字、或心、或佛、或衆生。不可守名而生解。
[HBJ070619a10 ]當體便是、動念卽乖。
[HBJ070619a11 ]世尊三處傳心者、爲禪旨。一代所說者、
[HBJ070619a12 ]爲教門。故曰禪是佛心、教是佛語。

Yet the fact that the Dharma has many meanings, and that people are of many different capacities does not prevent the [teaching] from being established. When forced to postulate various names, some call it mind, some call it Buddha, some call it sentient being. But you cannot produce understanding while sticking to the names of things. Experiencing the thing as it is, is on the mark, but once thought moves one goes counter to it. The transmission of mind by the World Honored One in three places 70 —this is the gist of Chan. That which he taught during his whole lifetime—this is the doctrinal approach. Therefore Chan is the mind of the Buddha and the doctrine is the words of the Buddha.


[HBJ070619a13 ]若人失之於口、則拈花面壁、皆是教迹。得之於心、
[HBJ070619a14 ]則世間麤言細語、皆是教外別傳禪旨。
[HBJ070619a15 ]吾有一言 絕慮忘緣
[HBJ070619a16 ]兀然無事坐、春來草自靑。

If one gets lost in the words, then holding up a flower or facing a wall—these are the external characteristics of the teaching. If it is obtained in the mind. In this case, the vulgar speech and refined speech of the mundane world, is all the special transmission of the gist of Chan outside of the teachings.

I have one word that cuts off thought and abandons conditions. 71

Oblivious, sitting without concern, when spring comes, the grass turns green by itself. 72


[HBJ070619a17 ]咄哉丈夫 將頭覔頭
[HBJ070619a18 ]馳求不歇 若言下回光
[HBJ070619a19 ]更不別求、與祖佛無殊、當下無事。

Bah! Foolish fellow, using his head to find his head, chasing after it without rest. 73 Once one has spoken, the light directly shines back. If you don't search for anything special, then you are not different from the patriarchs and buddhas. Then, there is nothing to do.


[HBJ070619a21 ]經云、狂性自歇、頭非外得、縱未歇狂、
[HBJ070619a22 ]亦何遺失。

The [Śūraṃgama]-sūtra says: Craziness exhausts itself, and the head cannot be gotten on the outside; if you have not yet exhausted your craziness, how indeed could it have been lost? 74


[HBJ070619a23 ]經云、一切衆生、於無生中、妄見生死涅槃、
[HBJ070619b01 ]如見空花起滅。然妙覺圓照、離於花翳、
[HBJ070619b02 ]故云翳眼觀空、無花見花。

The Sutra [of Perfect Enlightenment] says, “All sentient beings within nonarising, deludedly see saṃsāra and nirvāṇa, like seeing sky-flowers arise and cease. Yet the illumination of marvelous perfect enlightenment is free from flowers and cataracts. Therefore it says that when diseased eyes observe the sky, there are no flowers, but one sees flowers.” 75


[HBJ070619b03 ]又云、翳差花除。
[HBJ070619b04 ]離心求佛者外道、執心爲佛者爲魔。大抵忘機、
[HBJ070619b05 ]是佛道、分別是魔境。又分別不生
[HBJ070619b06 ]虛明自照。

It also says, “When the cataracts are healed, the flowers are removed.” 76

To seek the Buddha apart from the mind is a heterodox way; clinging to the mind to become Buddha is the way of Māra. Generally abandoning conceptual thought is the Buddha Way; discrimination is the realm of Māra. Furthermore, discrimination does not produce lucid self-illumination.


[HBJ070619b07 ]若不祕重得意一念、別求見性神通、則豈有休歇時。
[HBJ070619b08 ]一念者、一法也。所謂衆生心也。

If you don't value the attainment of the meaning in a single thought, and separately seek to see the nature and have omniscience, then how will you ever have a moment of peace? One thought-moment is one dharma. This is “the mind of sentient beings.”


[HBJ070619b10 ]淨名云。我本性元自淸淨。卽時豁然、
[HBJ070619b11 ]還得本心。又一悟卽至佛地。

The Vimalakīrti-sūtra says, “My fundamental nature is originally pure. Suddenly, one recovers one's original mind. Furthermore, in one moment of enlightenment one reaches the Buddha-stage.” 77


[HBJ070619b12 ]祖師云。性自淸淨。起心着淨、却生淨妄、
[HBJ070619b13 ]妄無處所、着者是妄。若不生心動念、
[HBJ070619b14 ]自然無妄。

The patriarchal teacher said: “The nature is of itself pure; when you give rise to a thought that is attached to purity, you instead give rise to the delusion of purity; it is the attachment itself that is false.” 78 If you do not give rise to the movement of thought, you will naturally be without delusion. 79


[HBJ070619b15 ]教門惟傳一心法、禪門惟傳見性法。心卽是性、
[HBJ070619b16 ]性卽是心。(心者是衆生本源心 非無明取相之心。性者是一心本法性 非性相相對之性)

The doctrinal approach only transmits the Dharma of the One Mind; 80 the Chan approach only transmits the Dharma of seeing the nature. 81 The mind is none other than this nature; the nature is none other than this mind. [“Mind” refers to the original mind of sentient beings—it is not the mind nescient mind that clings to characteristics. “Nature” refers to the original dharma nature of this one mind. It is not the nature that is mentioned in the nature/characteristics polarity. ]


[HBJ070619b17 ]心則從妙起明、如鏡之光、性則卽明而妙
[HBJ070619b18 ]如鏡之體。

In the case of the mind, it produces illumination from the marvelous, like the reflections in a mirror; in the case of the nature, it is just luminous and marvelous, like the mirror itself.


[HBJ070619b19 ]教門惟執悉達一生成佛者、爲小乘機也。
[HBJ070619b20 ]多劫修行、相盡性顯、方得成佛者、
[HBJ070619b21 ]爲大乘機也。一念悟時、名爲佛者、爲頓機也。
[HBJ070619b22 ]本來成佛者、爲圓機也、猶禪門。

The doctrinal approach adheres only to Siddhârtha's accomplishment of Buddhahood in one life, and is for those of the capacity of the lesser vehicle. In the practice through many eons, characteristics are erased and the nature is revealed, after which one becomes Buddha—this is the teaching for those with the capacity for the Great Vehicle. The one moment of realization being called Buddha—this is for those of sudden capacities. The approach that says we are all originally accomplished buddhas is for those of the perfect capacity, which is the same as the Chan approach.


[HBJ070619b23 ]煩惱菩提異執者、爲皮也。斷煩惱得菩提者、
[HBJ070619c01 ]爲肉也。迷則煩惱悟則菩提者、
[HBJ070619c02 ]爲骨也。本無煩惱元是菩提者、
[HBJ070619c03 ]爲髓也。

The afflictions and bodhi being mistaken attachments—this is the skin; eliminating afflictions and attaining bodhi—this is the flesh; if you are deluded then there is affliction; if you are awakened then there is bodhi—this is the bones; fundamentally there are no afflictions, as these are originally bodhi—this is the marrow.


[HBJ070619c04 ]然諸佛說經 先分別諸法 後說畢竟空。
[HBJ070619c05 ]祖師示句 迹絕於意地 理顯於心源。
[HBJ070619c06 ]諸佛說弓 祖師說弦。佛說無礙之法
[HBJ070619c07 ]方歸一味 拂此一味之迹 方現祖師
[HBJ070619c08 ]所示一心。故云庭前栢樹子 話龍藏所未有底。

Yet in the scriptures expounded by the buddhas, they first analyze all dharmas, and afterwards explain them to be ultimately empty. In the verses given by the patriarchal teachers, traces are severed at the stage of mentation, and the principle is revealed in the source of the mind. The discourses of the buddhas are the arrow; the discourses of the patriarchs are the string. The buddhas explain the unobstructed Dharma and then return to the single flavor. Therefore it is said that “the cypress tree in the garden” 82 ) expresses the bottomlessness of the dragon-store.


[HBJ070619c10 ]故學者 先以如實言教、委辨不變隨緣二義。
[HBJ070619c11 ]是自心之性相、頓悟漸修兩門
[HBJ070619c12 ]是自行之始終。然後放下教義。
[HBJ070619c13 ]但將自心現前一念 參詳禪旨 則必有所得
[HBJ070619c14 ]所謂出身活路。

Therefore the student should start by using accurate teachings, and finish by discerning that the two doctrines of changelessness and according with conditions are the essence and aspects of one's own mind, and that the two approaches of sudden awakening and gradual practice are the beginning and end of one's own practice. Only after this should one let go of the doctrine and take up the single thought appears in one's mind, and examine thoroughly the gist of Chan. Then certainly something will be attained—the “living path of liberation.”


[HBJ070619c15 ]大抵學者 須叅活句 莫叅死句。

In general, one should study the living word, and not study the dead word.


[HBJ070619c16 ]凡本叅公案上、切心做工夫。如雞抱卵、
[HBJ070619c17 ]如猫捕鼠 如飢思食 如渴思水 如兒憶母
[HBJ070619c18 ]心有透徹之期。

Whenever you investigate the kōan, you must devote your mind fully to the task: it is like a hen hatching an egg, like a cat chasing a mouse, like the hungry thinking of food, like the thirsty thinking of water, like an infant remembering its mother. It is a time when the mind is perfectly clear.


[HBJ070619c19 ]先德云、叅禪須透祖師關 妙悟要窮心路絕。

An ancient master said: “In Chan practice, you must pass through the barrier of the patriarchs; to attain marvelous enlightenment, you must completely cut off the path of thought.” 83


[HBJ070619c21 ]高峰云、叅禪須具三要 一有大信根
[HBJ070619c22 ]二有大憤志 三有大疑情 苟闕其一
[HBJ070620a01 ]如折足之鼎 終成廢器。

Gaofeng said: “For the study of Chan, there are three requirements: (1) having the great root of faith; (2) having great determination, and (3) having great doubt. If you lack one of these, it is like a broken like on a tripod sacrificial vessel. In the end you will discard it.”


[HBJ070620a02 ]妙喜云。日用應緣處。只擧狗子無佛性話
[HBJ070620a03 ]擧來擧去 看來看去。覺得沒理路
[HBJ070620a04 ]沒義路 沒滋味。心頭熱悶時 便是
[HBJ070620a05 ]當人放身命處。亦是成佛作祖底基本也。
[HBJ070620a06 ]又云、若欲敵生死、須得這一念子
[HBJ070620a07 ]嚗地一破 方了得生死。

Miaoxi (Dahui) said: “In your daily activities, you should respond to the situation as it comes. Then merely raise the keyword, “the dog has no Buddha-nature.” Raise it when you are coming, raise it when you are going; inquire into it when you are coming, inquire into it when you are going. You will notice that there is no logical route, no theoretical route, and no flavor. When your brain burns in agony, this is where people let go of body and life.” 84 And this is the fundamental ground where one becomes a buddha—where one makes oneself into a patriarch. He also said: “If you want to confront saṃsāra, you must get hold of this one thought and smash it to the ground in one crash. Then you can get hold of saṃsāra.” 85


[HBJ070620a08 ]先德云、這箇無字 三世諸佛面目
[HBJ070620a09 ]歷代祖師骨髓、亦是諸人命根。 諸人還肯也無
[HBJ070620a10 ]大疑之下 必有大悟。

An ancient master said: “This word ‘mu’ is the eyes and face of the buddhas of the three divisions of time, it is the bone and marrow of the successive generations of the ancestral teachers. It is also the life-faculty of the people. Do people have it or not? Beneath great doubt there must be great enlightenment.”


[HBJ070620a11 ]話頭不得擧起處承當、不得思量卜度。
[HBJ070620a12 ]又不得將迷待悟。就不可思量處、
[HBJ070620a13 ]思量心無所之、如老鼠入牛角、便見倒斷也。
[HBJ070620a14 ]又尋常計較安排底 是識情。隨生死還流底
[HBJ070620a15 ]是識情。怕怖慞惶底 是識情。
[HBJ070620a16 ]今人不知是病 只管在裏許 頭出頭沒。

The hwadu cannot be attained by trying to apply it; it cannot be attained by deliberation and speculation; it also cannot be attained by holding onto delusion and waiting for enlightenment. When you approach the place where you cannot think, and your thoughts have no place to go, it is like an old mouse, which having crawled into an ox's horn. Your mistaken views are cut off. Furthermore, that which always calculates and arranges is ordinary discrimination. That which circulates following birth-and-death is ordinary discrimination. Being scared and confused is ordinary discrimination. People of the present, not knowing this is a kind of disease, focus exclusively on the internal, floating along, drowning in delusion.


[HBJ070620a18 ]大抵此事 如蚊子上鐵牛。更不問如何若何
[HBJ070620a19 ]下觜不得處棄命 一攢和身透入。

Generally, this matter is like a mosquito on an iron bull. It doesn't repeatedly ask, “How should I do it, how should I do it?” At the point at which its needle doesn't penetrate, it abandons its life, and gathering all of its energy into its body it pierces through. 86


[HBJ070620a21 ]工夫如調絃之法 緊緩得其中。
[HBJ070620a22 ]勤則近執着 忘則落無明。
[HBJ070620a23 ]惺惺歷歷 密密綿綿

The effort is like the method of tuning a stringed instrument—you must find the middle range between taut and slack. If you strive too much, then you end up being attached; if you let go, then you fall into nescience. Be sharp and vivid, precise and detailed.


[HBJ070620a24 ]工夫到行不知行 坐不知坐 當此之時
[HBJ070620b01 ]八萬四千魔軍 在六根門頭伺候。
[HBJ070620b02 ]隨心生設。心若不起 爭如之何。
[HBJ070620b03 ]起心是天魔 不起心是陰魔。或起或不起
[HBJ070620b04 ]是煩惱魔。然我正法中 本無如是事。

When one's training reaches to where one practices without the awareness that one is practicing and one sits [for meditation] without the awareness that one is sitting, 87 the 84,000 armies of Māra are waiting at the gates of the six faculties. They come into play according to the state of one's thoughts. If thought does not arise, then what can they do?

The arousal of thought is the heavenly Māra; non-arising of thoughts is the Māra of the aggregates. When thought sometimes arises and sometimes does not arise, this is the Māra of the afflictions. Yet within my true Dharma, there is originally no such situation.


[HBJ070620b06 ]工夫若打成一片 則縱今生透不得
[HBJ070620b07 ]眼光落地之時 不爲惡業所牽。

In this effort, if you put all the fragments into one piece, then even if in this present lifetime you do not attain clarity, when die, you will not be led by your evil karma,


[HBJ070620b08 ]於法有親切返照之功。
[HBJ070620b09 ]自肯點頭者 始有語話分
[HBJ070620b10 ]心如木石者 始有學道分。

If one makes a serious effort to reflect on the Dharma, those who affirm it for themselves and nod their heads are for the first time qualified to speak. Those whose minds are like trees and stones are for the first time qualified for the path of training.


[HBJ070620b11 ]大抵叅禪者。還知四恩深厚麼。
[HBJ070620b12 ]還知四大醜身 念念衰朽麼。還知人命在呼吸麼。
[HBJ070620b13 ]生來値佛祖麼 及聞無上法。
[HBJ070620b14 ]生希有心麼。不離僧堂守節麼。不與鄰單雜話麼。

In general, those who practice Chan should [maintain awareness of the following points]: Are you deeply aware of your four kinds of obligations for the kindnesses you have received? Are you aware that the disgusting body that is composed of the four elements is decaying every moment? Are you aware that human life depends upon your breath? Have you yet encountered buddhas and patriarchs, or listened to the exposition of the unsurpassed Dharma? Have you experienced the rare state of mind? Have you not departed from the discipline of the meditation hall? Do you not engage in chit-chat with those sitting next to you?


[HBJ070620b15 ]切忌皷扇是非麼。話頭十二時中明明不昧麼。
[HBJ070620b16 ]對人接話時 無間斷麼。
[HBJ070620b17 ]見聞覺知時 打成一片麼。
[HBJ070620b18 ]返觀自己 捉敗佛祖麼。今生決㝎續佛慧命麼。

Do you studiously avoid instigating debates over right and wrong? Do you keep fully focused on the hwadu twenty-four hours a day without dullness? Are you able to maintain the hwadu unbroken even while in conversations with others? Are you able to maintain a state of nonduality when you see, hear, and cognize things? While reflecting on yourself, are you still able to devote yourself to the Buddhas and patriarchs? Are you determined to maintain the Buddha's wisdom and life throughout this present lifetime?


[HBJ070620b19 ]此一報身 㝎脫輪廻麼。
[HBJ070620b20 ]當八風境 心不動麼。起坐便宜時 還思地獄苦麼。
[HBJ070620b21 ]此是叅禪人日用中 點檢底道理。

Are you determined to escape from saṃsāra in your present reward body? Are you able to remain unmoved by the eight winds 88 of the objective realm? When you arise from the good state of meditation, do you reflect on the suffering of the hells? This is the basic principle of the Chan practitioners self-checking during daily activity.


[HBJ070620b22 ]古人云、此身不向今生度 更待何生度此身。

An ancient said: “If I do not save myself in this present lifetime, what lifetime shall I wait for?”


[HBJ070620b23 ]{評曰}上來法語 如人飮水冷暖自知。
[HBJ070620b24 ]聰明不能敵業 乾慧未免苦輪。各須察念
[HBJ070620c01 ]勿以媕娿自謾。

[Comment] The above-expressed teaching is like a person drinking water and automatically knowing whether it is hot or cold. If one's intelligence is not sufficient for opposing one's karma, and philosophical speculation cannot avoid the wheel of suffering, In each case it is necessary to observe one's thoughts. One mustn't deceive oneself by indecision.


[HBJ070620c02 ]學語之輩 說時似悟 對境還迷
[HBJ070620c03 ]所謂言行相違者也。

Those who study the words seem to be enlightened when they speak, but when they deal with the world, their delusion returns. This is what is known as the disparity between words and deeds.


[HBJ070620c04 ]悟入不甚深者、雖終日內照 常爲淨潔所拘。
[HBJ070620c05 ]雖觀物虛 恆爲境界所縛。此人之病
[HBJ070620c06 ]只在認見聞覺知 爲空寂知。
[HBJ070620c07 ]坐在光影門頭也。故若不深知心體離念
[HBJ070620c08 ]則終未免見聞覺知。

If you are enlightened, but not deeply, even if you spend the whole day in inner reflection, you will always be trapped by purity. Even if you contemplate on the voidness of things, you will always be tethered to the objective realm. This sickness of people only resides in the acknowledgment of what is seen heard, and cognized, becomes the cognition of voidness. One sits as the gatekeeper of phantom images. Therefore, if you do not deeply know the essence of the mind that is free from thought, then in the end you cannot avoid seeing, hearing, and cognizing.


[HBJ070620c09 ]所轉法離三世 不可因果中契。

The Dharma that is expounded transcends the three divisions of time, and cannot be defined within cause and effect.


[HBJ070620c10 ]須虛懷自照 信一念緣起無生。然無明力大
[HBJ070620c11 ]故後後長養 保任不忘爲難。

You must openly reflect on yourself. In one moment of faith, dependent arising will not occur. Yet since the power of nescience is great, you must nourish your faith continually afterwards. Maintaining one's practice after awakening without forgetting is difficult.


[HBJ070620c12 ]惑本無從 迷眞忽起
[HBJ070620c13 ]若照惑無本 則空花三界 如風捲烟。
[HBJ070620c14 ]幻化六塵 如湯銷冰。

Mental disturbances originally do not come from anywhere. Confusion regarding reality suddenly arises. If you discern that mental disturbances have no source, then the sky-flowers of the triple realm will be like smoke swirling in the wind; the illusory transformations of the six sense fields are like hot water melting ice.


[HBJ070620c15 ]然此心雖凡聖等有、果顯易信 因隱難明。
[HBJ070620c16 ]故淺識之流 輕因重果。願諸道者
[HBJ070620c17 ]深信自心 不自屈不自高。

Yet even though this mind is equally possessed by worldlings and sages, its effects are obvious, and easy to believe; but its causes are hidden, and difficult to know. Therefore those of shallow consciousness tends to disregard causes and pay attention to effects. I wish that practitioners of the Way would deeply believe in their own minds, and be neither self-denigrating nor arrogant.


[HBJ070620c18 ]悟人卽頓見 迷人期遠劫。

An enlightened person sees suddenly; a deluded person requires eons.


[HBJ070620c19 ]經云、理雖頓悟解似電光 事非頓除行同窮子。
[HBJ070620c20 ]又云、文殊達天眞 普賢明緣起。

A sutra says: Even though the principle is suddenly realized understanding is like a bolt of lightning, phenomenal matters are not instantly resolved, and practice is like that of the prodigal son. It also says: Mañjuśrī understands the divine reality, Samantabhadra illumines dependent arising.


[HBJ070620c21 ]善達覺性 不因修生 名正知見。

Skillfully piercing the enlightened nature without relying on cultivation is called “correct view.”


[HBJ070621a01 ]大道本乎其心 心法本乎無住。無住心體
[HBJ070621a02 ]靈知不昧。性相寂然 包含德用。

The great way originates in this mind. The Dharma of mind originates in nonabiding. The nonabiding essence of the mind is a numinous awareness that is not obscured. When nature and characteristics are quiescent, they include meritorious function.


[HBJ070621a03 ]古德云、只貴子眼正 不貴汝行履處。

An ancient master said: “It is only important that your view is right; your lifestyle is not so important. ” 89


[HBJ070621a04 ]古德云、若未悟煩惱性空 心性本淨、
[HBJ070621a05 ]則悟旣未徹。修豈稱眞哉故 云、迷心修道
[HBJ070621a06 ]但助無明。又不能了自心 云何知正道。

An ancient master said: “If you do not realize that afflictions are originally devoid of nature and that the nature of mind is originally pure, then your realization is not yet thorough. How can you say your practice is real?” He also said: “If you cultivate the way with a deluded mind, you are simply augmenting nescience. And if you are unable to fathom your own mind, how can you know the right way?”


[HBJ070621a08 ]先修後悟 有功之功 功歸生滅
[HBJ070621a09 ]先悟後修 無功之功 功不虛棄。
[HBJ070621a10 ]自悟修行 無能所觀。譬如弄傀儡
[HBJ070621a11 ]線斷一時休。

First practicing and then awakening is conditioned effort that ends up being saṃsāric. First awakening and then practicing is unconditioned effort, and this kind of effort is not wasted. When one practices based on awakening, there is no view of subject and object. It is like a puppet: once the strings are cut, it suddenly stops.


[HBJ070621a12 ]法本無縛何用解。法本不染何用洗。
[HBJ070621a13 ]不用捨衆生心。但莫染汚自性
[HBJ070621a14 ]求正法是邪。

The Dharma originally has no binding, so what is the use of liberation? The Dharma is originally unstained, so what is the use of cleansing? You do not need to abandon the minds of sentient beings. If you simply do not pollute your own nature, seeking the true Dharma is entirely wrong.


[HBJ070621a15 ]一念情生 卽墮異趣。亦名守屍鬼子。
[HBJ070621a16 ]斷煩惱者名二乘 煩惱不生名大涅槃。
[HBJ070621a17 ]諦觀殺盜婬妄 從一心上起。當處便寂
[HBJ070621a18 ]何須更斷。

In one moment of thought, feelings arise then you fall into an unenlightened rebirth. This is also known as protecting the ghost of a corpse. Those who eliminate the afflictions are called adherents of the two vehicles. 90 When the afflictions do not arise, it is called great nirvāṇa. Observe clearly that killing, stealing, debauchery, and lying are produced from the One Mind. At that point they are extinguished. What further need is there of getting rid of them?


[HBJ070621a19 ]不識其相 賊卽能爲。不達其空
[HBJ070621a20 ]永不可斷。

If you are unaware of their characteristics, thieves [the afflictions] are able to act. If you do not realize their emptiness, you will never be able to get rid of them.


[HBJ070621a21 ]經云、覺性本淨 無明本空。悟此理
[HBJ070621a22 ]不生一念 名爲永斷無明。又、斷斷無斷。
[HBJ070621a23 ]修修無修。又、念起卽覺。

A sutra says: “The enlightened nature is originally pure; nescience is originally empty. To be aware of this principle without giving rise to a single thought is called permanent riddance of nescience. Furthermore, you get rid of again and again without there being any riddance. You cultivate again and again without there being any cultivation. And the arising of a thought is none other than enlightenment.”


[HBJ070621a24 ]先德云、修道如磨鏡光生。雖云磨鏡
[HBJ070621b01 ]却是磨塵。所言修道 只是遣妄。

An ancient master said: “Cultivating the way is like polishing a mirror and the reflection emerging.” Even if you “polishing the mirror”, this is the same as “polishing dirt.” “Cultivating the way” is nothing more than removing falsity.


[HBJ070621b02 ]八風五欲 心如日月。天堂地獄 所不能攝。

In the face of the eight winds and the five desires, the mind is like the sun and the moon. Heaven and hell cannot contain it.


[HBJ070621b04 ]心者萬形之模範、業一心之影響。

Mind is the model for myriad forms; karma is the shape and sound of the mind.


[HBJ070621b05 ]又云、一切萬法 從心幻生。心旣無形
[HBJ070621b06 ]法何有相。

It is also said: “All of the myriad dharmas are illusorily produced from the mind. Since the mind is without shape, how could dharmas have any characteristics?”


[HBJ070621b07 ]先德亦云、心爲大幻師 身爲大幻城
[HBJ070621b08 ]沙界大幻衣 名相大幻食。凡夫不識幻
[HBJ070621b09 ]處處迷幻業。聲聞怕幻境 昧心而入寂。
[HBJ070621b10 ]菩薩識幻境 不拘諸名相。

An ancient master also said: “The mind is the great illusionist; the body is the great illusory castle; the numberless worlds are the great illusory clothes; name and form are the great illusory food. Ordinary people, unaware of the illusion, in every situation are confused by illusory karma. Śrāvakas, agitated by the illusory realm, darken their minds and enter quiescence. Bodhisattvas, aware of illusory realm, are not caught up in various names and forms.” 91


[HBJ070621b11 ]經云、知幻卽離 不作方便 離幻卽覺
[HBJ070621b12 ]亦無漸次。

A sutra says: “Knowing illusion is in itself freedom, without devising skillful means. Freedom from illusion is in itself enlightenment—there are no gradual stages.” 92


[HBJ070621b13 ]離幻者 如雲散月出 非謂無雲便名爲月。
[HBJ070621b14 ]但於無雲處見月矣。非謂無幻便是眞如
[HBJ070621b15 ]但於無幻處見眞理矣。

Being free from illusion “is like the clouds dispersing and the moon appearing. It doesn't mean that the absence of clouds is called the moon—it is just that the moon is seen in the situation of cloudlessness. And you can't say that thusness is simply the absence of illusion—it is just that in the absence of illusion one sees reality.” 93


[HBJ070621b16 ]大抵起心動念(言妄言眞)無非幻也。

In general, the arising of mind and the movement of thought [whether it be called false or true] is never free from illusion.


[HBJ070621b17 ][以此上論解 此下論行]

[Comment: The above part has discussed theory. The below part will discuss practice]


[HBJ070621b18 ]頓悟自性 發三心起四廣修萬行
[HBJ070621b19 ]佛法本根源 衆生心裏出。
[HBJ070621b20 ]先師云、一念齊修八萬行。

Suddenly awakening to one's own nature, one produces the three kinds of mind, gives rise to the four boundless states of mind, 94 and cultivates a myriad practices. The original source of the Buddhadharma comes forth from within the mind of sentient beings. An ancient master said: “In one moment of thought one cultivates myriad practices equally. ”


[HBJ070621b21 ]然衆生生無慧目 必借善知識開示
[HBJ070621b22 ]故親近善友 敬事如佛 不惜身命。
[HBJ070621b23 ]諮決衆疑(如涅槃具足因緣 法句無量功德云云等) 先須念念
[HBJ070621c01 ]自歸三寶 自度衆生。

Yet sentient beings give rise to the eye of nescience and so must rely on the guidance of a reliable teacher. Therefore one should become intimate with good Buddhist teachers, making offerings to them as if they were buddhas, not sparing body or life. Taking under consideration and resolving all doubts (such as whether nirvāṇa contains all causes and conditions, or if Dharma teachings contain immeasurable merit and so forth), first one must, in each thought take refuge in the three treasures and vow to save sentient beings.


[HBJ070621c02 ]心淸淨是佛 心光明是法 心不二是僧。
[HBJ070621c03 ]又、性本知覺爲佛 性本寂滅爲法
[HBJ070621c04 ]性上妙用爲僧。忽得自家底今日
[HBJ070621c05 ]方知本來無事。

The mind's purity is Buddha; the mind's illumination is the Dharma; the nonduality of the mind is the Saṃgha. Furthermore, the nature's original sapience is the Buddha; the nature's original quiescence is the Dharma; the nature's marvelous function is the Saṃgha. If you suddenly attain your own basis today, then you know that there is originally nothing going on.


[HBJ070621c06 ]經云、度衆生入滅度 又實無衆生得滅度者。
[HBJ070621c07 ]何也。菩薩只以念念者 爲衆生也。
[HBJ070621c08 ]了念體空者 度衆生也。念旣空寂者
[HBJ070621c09 ]實無衆生得滅度者也。然則悟者佛也。
[HBJ070621c10 ]迷者衆生也。悲者度衆生也。
[HBJ070621c11 ]智者了達也。願者勤行也。
[HBJ070621c12 ]皆自性中建立事也。
[HBJ070621c13 ]然修行之要 但盡凡情 別無聖解。

The (Diamond) Sutra says: “I save sentient beings [by having them] enter into nirvāṇa, yet there are actually no sentient beings to be saved.” 95 What does this mean? For bodhisattvas, continuous thinking is exactly what it means to be a sentient being; understanding that thoughts are essentially empty is what it means to save sentient beings. Thoughts being already void means that there are actually no sentient beings to be saved. Thus, those who are awakened are buddhas, and those who are confused are sentient beings. Compassion is saving sentient beings; wisdom is full understanding. Vowing means that one makes strenuous effort, and all of these are phenomena that are expressed in your own nature. Yet the essentials of practice are simply that of extinguishing unenlightened discriminations; there is no special holy understanding.


[HBJ070621c14 ]經云、末世諸衆生 心不生虗妄。
[HBJ070621c15 ]佛說如是人 現世卽菩薩。

A sutra says: “Sentient beings of the degenerate age should not give rise to falsity in their minds. The buddha says that such people are bodhisattvas in the present world.” 96


[HBJ070621c16 ]無德之人 不依佛戒 不護三業。
[HBJ070621c17 ]放逸懈怠 輕慢他人。較量是非 而爲根本。

The man who has no virtue does not rely on the Buddhist precepts and is not on guard regarding the three kinds of activity. He is dissipated and lazy, and despises others. Always calculating what to do and what not to do—this is his main concern.


[HBJ070621c18 ]經云、帶婬修禪 如蒸沙作飯。帶殺修禪、
[HBJ070621c19 ]如塞耳呌聲。帶偸修禪 如漏巵求滿。
[HBJ070621c20 ]帶妄修禪 如刻糞爲香。縱有多智
[HBJ070621c21 ]皆成魔道。

A sutra says: “Practicing Chan while enmeshed in debauchery is like boiling sand to make rice.” Practicing Chan while involved in killing is like screaming into blocked ears; practicing Chan while engaged in stealing is like trying to fill a leaky cup; practicing Chan while being wrapped up in lies is like carving up shit to be used as incense. Even if you know a lot, all of these turn into devilish paths.


[HBJ070621c22 ]經云、若不持戒 尙不得疥癩野干之身。
[HBJ070621c23 ]況淸淨菩提果可冀乎(靈山會上還曾見無行底佛麼。還曾見妄語底祖師麼) 。

A sutra says: “If you don't observe the precepts, how will you avoid obtaining the body of a scab-ridden jackal? How could you even think of trying to attain the fruition of pure enlightenment? ” 97 [{check this against text} Have you seen any of those who did not practice at the sermons of Vulture Peak who became buddhas? Have you seen any patriarchs who were liars?]


[HBJ070622a02 ]先德云、重戒如佛 佛常在焉。
[HBJ070622a03 ]又云、以戒爲師。

An ancient master said: “If you venerate the precepts as if they were the Buddha, the Buddha is always present.” He also said: “Take the precepts as your master.”


[HBJ070622a04 ]經云、欲脫生死 先斷貪欲及諸愛渴。

A sutra says: “If you want to cast off birth-and-death, you must first eliminate desire and thirst.”


[HBJ070622a05 ]經云、無礙淸淨慧 皆因禪㝎生。
[HBJ070622a06 ]是知超凡入聖 坐脫立亡者 皆禪㝎之力也。
[HBJ070622a07 ]故云欲求聖道 離此無路。

A sutra says: “Unobstructed pure wisdom is always produced from Chan concentration.” 98 Hence we know that “transcending the ordinary consciousness and entering the holy” and “passing away while sitting or standing” are all based on the power of Chan concentration. Hence it is said: “If you desire to seek the holy Way, there is no path apart from this.” 99


[HBJ070622a08 ]心在㝎 則能知世間生滅諸相(虛隙日光塵擾擾 淸潭水底影昭昭)。

When your mind is concentrated, you can know all of the aspects that arise and cease in the world. [When the light shines through a crevice, it illuminates the floating dust; at the bottom of a clear pond the images are clear.]


[HBJ070622a09 ]心念不起 名爲坐。自性不動 名爲禪。
[HBJ070622a10 ]見境心不起 名不生。不生名無念。
[HBJ070622a11 ]無念名解脫。

Thoughts not arising is called “sitting.” One's nature remaining motionless is called “chan.” Seeing objects and not giving rise to though is called “nonproduction.” Nonproduction is called “no-thought.” No-thought is called “liberation.”
[HBJ070622a12 ]正念不忘 煩惱不生。如云眼若不睡
[HBJ070622a13 ]諸夢自除。

When correct mindfulness is not forgotten, the afflictions do not arise. This is like saying that if one's eyes do not close for sleep, dreams will naturally disappear.


[HBJ070622a14 ]修道證滅 是亦非眞也。心法本寂
[HBJ070622a15 ]乃眞滅也。故曰諸法從本來 常自寂滅相。

Extinction being realized through cultivation of the Way is not true. The true extinction is that of the mind and dharmas being originally quiescent. Hence it is said that dharmas have originally always had the characteristic of extinction. 100


[HBJ070622a16 ]若有見正覺 解脫離諸漏。不着一切世
[HBJ070622a17 ]彼非證道眼。

If you have a vision of correct enlightenment, you will be liberated from all taints. Unattached to everything in the world, they do not realize the eye of the Way.


[HBJ070622a18 ]見生趣滅 聲聞見。不見生 惟見滅
[HBJ070622a19 ]緣覺見。法本不生 今亦無滅。不起二見
[HBJ070622a20 ]菩薩見。

Seeing arising proceeding to cessation is the view of śrāvakas. 101 Not seeing arising and only seeing cessation, is the view of pratyekabuddhas. 102 Dharmas originally do not arise and they do not now cease. Not giving rise to these two views, is the view of the bodhisattvas.


[HBJ070622a21 ]水澄珠瑩 雲散月明 三業淸淨
[HBJ070622a22 ]百福倶集。

When the water is clear, the jewels are readily seen; when the clouds disperse, the moon shines; when the three kinds of activities 103 are purified, all kinds of good fortune are fully gathered.


[HBJ070622a23 ]貧人來乞 隨分施與。同體大悲
[HBJ070622b01 ]是眞布施。

When the poor come begging, you should give according to your capacity. The great compassion that comes from knowing your fundamental oneness with others 104 —this is true almsgiving.


[HBJ070622b02 ]有人來害 當自攝心 勿生瞋根。
[HBJ070622b03 ]一念瞋心起 百萬障門開
[HBJ070622b04 ]若無忍行 萬行不成。

When someone comes to do you harm, you should remain composed, and not give rise to the root of anger. Once an angry thought arises, a million hindrances are released. If you do not practice tolerance, the rest of the myriad practices will bear no fruit.


[HBJ070622b05 ]凡有下心者 萬福自歸依。
[HBJ070622b06 ]生死中不失正念 大力菩薩。
[HBJ070622b07 ]正念者無念也。

Generally, if you keep an attitude of humility, a myriad blessings will be your base. Those who do not fail to maintain correct mindfulness through birth-and-death are bodhisattvas of great power. Correct mindfulness means no-thought.


[HBJ070622b08 ]守本眞心 大精進人也。又、身心不動
[HBJ070622b09 ]第一精進。
[HBJ070622b10 ]經云、若起精進心 是妄非精進。

Those who preserve their original true minds are persons of great zeal. And not allowing the body and mind to be agitated is the primary practice of diligence. A sutra says: “If you give rise to an attitude of diligence but it is deluded, then it is not diligence.” 105


[HBJ070622b11 ]古德云、莫妄想休得也。

An ancient master said, “Rather than think deluded thoughts, take a break.”


[HBJ070622b12 ]於道懈怠者 常常望後。是自棄人也。

Those who are lazy about practice are always procrastinating; such people are wasting their own time.


[HBJ070622b13 ]經云、持呪者現業易制 自行可違
[HBJ070622b14 ]宿業難除 必借神力。

A sutra says: “The chanting of mantras is done because although present karma is readily controllable by changing one's behavior, past karma is difficult to remove, so one must rely on spiritual power.”


[HBJ070622b15 ]達摩云、禮拜 禮者敬也 拜者伏也
[HBJ070622b16 ]恭敬眞性 屈伏無明。又云、身口意淸淨則佛出世
[HBJ070622b17 ]念佛在口曰誦 在心曰念
[HBJ070622b18 ]徒誦失念 於道無益。

Bodhidharma said: “As for the word ‘obeisance’ [composed of the two logographs ‘propriety’  and ‘bowing’ ]: Propriety means ‘reverence;’ ‘bowing’ means ‘submission.’ We have reverence for our true nature; we force nescience into submission.” He also said: “When deeds, speech, and thoughts are purified, then a buddha has appeared in the world. When recollection of the [name of the] Buddha resides in the mouth it is called ‘chanting.’ When it happens in in the mind it is called ‘mindfulness.’ If you chant and lose your mindfulness, there is no merit toward attaining the Way.”


[HBJ070622b19 ]五祖云、守本眞心 勝念十方諸佛。

The fifth patriarch said: “Preserving your original true mind is superior to recollection of the buddhas of the ten directions.” 106


[HBJ070622b20 ]六祖云、常念他佛 不免生死。
[HBJ070622b21 ]守我本心 卽到彼岸。

The sixth patriarch said: “By constant recollection of external buddhas, you do not escape from birth-and-death. Preserving my original mind, I will reach the other shore.” 107


[HBJ070622b22 ]念念見性 常行平等
[HBJ070622b23 ]徃如彈指 便覩彌陁
[HBJ070622b24 ]迷心念佛 有取捨義。欣彼極樂爲取。
[HBJ070622c01 ]厭此娑婆爲捨。經云、種種取捨 皆是輪廻。

In each moment seeing your nature, always acting according to intrinsic equality, 108 rebirth in the Pure Land is like snapping the fingers—you immediately see Amitâbha. If you remember the Buddha in a state of delusion, you will have a sense of grasping and rejecting. Longing for paradise is grasping; disliking this dirty world is rejecting. A sutra says: “Various grasping and rejecting is all saṃsāra.”


[HBJ070622c03 ]佛向性中作 莫向身外求。
[HBJ070622c04 ]性迷卽凡 性覺卽佛。

Buddhahood is accomplished by turning to one's nature—it is not to be sought outside oneself. Those who are confused about their nature are ordinary people. Those who are enlightened to their nature are buddhas.


[HBJ070622c05 ]淨名云、迷人念佛求生 悟人自淨其心。
[HBJ070622c06 ]又云、心淨佛土淨。又、淨穢在心 何關國土。

The Vimalakīrti-sūtra says: “Deluded people carry out remembrance of the Buddha seeking life [in the Pure Land]. The enlightened purify their own minds.” 109 It also says: “[According to] the purity of the mind, the Buddha-land is pure.” 110 Also, purity and pollution reside in the mind: how could this distinction be related to a specific place?


[HBJ070622c08 ]先德云、大抵衆生 識心自度。
[HBJ070622c09 ]佛不能度衆生。佛若能度 過去諸佛
[HBJ070622c10 ]已恆沙無量 何故我等今不成佛。故知自不修道
[HBJ070622c11 ]徒望淨土者錯矣。

An ancient worthy said: “Generally speaking, sentient beings save themselves by their own awareness. The buddhas are not able to save sentient beings. If the buddhas were able to save them, then why haven't the buddhas who are more numerous than the countless grains of sand in the Ganges already made us into buddhas? Hence we know that those who do not cultivate the way themselves and look forward to rebirth in the Pure Land are way off the mark.”


[HBJ070622c12 ]評曰上來諸德直指一心 別無方便(方將一法便逗諸根)
[HBJ070622c13 ]理實如是。然迹門 實有極樂世界。
[HBJ070622c14 ]阿彌陁佛 有四十八大願。
[HBJ070622c15 ]凡念十聲者 承此願力 必徃生蓮胎
[HBJ070622c16 ]徑脫輪廻。三世諸佛 異口讚歎。
[HBJ070622c17 ]十方菩薩 同願徃生。又況古今徃生之人
[HBJ070622c18 ]傳記昭昭。願諸行者 愼勿錯認。
[HBJ070622c19 ]但除其病 不除其法。

[Comment] The discussions of the above masters are all directly pointing to the One Mind. They do not acknowledge the usage of any special skillful means. [The ideograph bang 方 (of the compound word bangpyeon 方便) means “one method;” the ideograph pyeon 便 means to adapt to various faculties.] The reality is like this. Yet in the outwardly expressed [expedient] teaching, there really is such a thing as the realm of ultimate bliss. Amitâbha Buddha has forty-eight great vows. If anyone chants his name ten times, then based on the power of Amitâbha's vows, that person will definitely be reborn in the lotus womb and directly escape transmigration. The buddhas of the three divisions of time praise this Pure Land with different voices. The bodhisattvas of the ten directions also vow to be reborn there. Furthermore, all the biographies of the people who have been born there in the past and present are readily evident. I only hope that practitioners are careful not to go astray. They should only remove the disease and not its cure.


[HBJ070622c20 ]誦經有經耳之緣、隨喜之福
[HBJ070622c21 ]幻軀有盡 實行不亡。

When chanting sutras, the sutras become the object of hearing and of the blessing of joyous response. 111 The phantom body will eventually disappear, but true practices will not.


[HBJ070623a01 ]看經 若不向自己上做工夫。
[HBJ070623a02 ]雖看盡萬藏 猶無益也。

When studying the sutras, if you do not make effort beyond yourself, even if you fully read thousands of canonical texts, there will be no benefit.


[HBJ070623a03 ]或有不窮世出世善惡因果 皆從一念起者。
[HBJ070623a04 ]居常時中 輕御自心 不解省察。
[HBJ070623a05 ]以故雖有看經及禪偈、忽然得意之時
[HBJ070623a06 ]但卽時欣幸 後便輕擲 不加決擇。
[HBJ070623a07 ]返逐塵緣 念念流轉 豈有成辦之期。

If you don't fathom the fact that all mundane and transmundane wholesome and unwholesome causes and effects arise from a single thought, then throughout your daily activities you pay little heed to the handling of your own mind, not understanding the need to scrutinize yourself carefully. Therefore, on the occasion when you are studying the scriptures and the Chan verses and you happen to suddenly catch some point, at that time you are overjoyed. But soon after you lightly let it slip away, and do not increase your discernment. Instead you chase after worldly entanglements, riding the flow of saṃsāra with every thought. How can you hope to accomplish anything?


[HBJ070623a08 ]學者不能返照自心 煩惱性空故、
[HBJ070623a09 ]但將聦慧 終年竟歲 數他珎寶。
[HBJ070623a10 ]凡人多於教法上悟 不於自心上悟。
[HBJ070623a11 ]雖至成佛 皆謂之聲聞見。

Because students are unable to reflect on their own minds and see that the afflictions are inherently empty, they use their insights year in and year out to count the treasures of others. Most ordinary people achieve understanding from studying the doctrine; they do not achieve understanding based on their own minds. Even though they eventually become buddhas, these can all be called śrāvaka views.


[HBJ070623a12 ]先德云、迷人向文字中求悟 悟人向自心而覺
[HBJ070623a13 ]迷人修因待果 悟人了心本空。

An ancient master said: “Deluded people seek enlightenment in the words of the texts; enlightened people are awakened by looking at their own minds. Deluded people cultivate causes and await results; enlightened people know that their minds are originally empty.” 112


[HBJ070623a14 ]祖師云、千經萬論 莫過守本眞心。
[HBJ070623a15 ]直饒講得千經論也 落禪家第二機。
[HBJ070623a16 ]先德云、一法通而萬法自通故
[HBJ070623a17 ]好愽聞者不知道。

A patriarch said: “[The study of] a thousand scriptures and ten-thousand treatises does not surpass preserving your original true mind.” 113 Even if you can discourse on a thousand scriptures and treatises, you still only fall into the second rank of ability among Chan practitioners.

An ancient master said: “When one dharma is penetrated, myriad dharmas are automatically penetrated; therefore those who like broad learning do not know the Way.”


[HBJ070623a18 ]學未至於道 衒耀見聞。徒以口舌辯利
[HBJ070623a19 ]相勝者 如厠屋塗丹艧。
[HBJ070623a20 ]學本修性 豈慍人之不知。道本全生
[HBJ070623a21 ]何蘄世之爲用。

Students who have not yet attained the Way like to show off what they know. Their followers, competing against each other with their rhetorical skills, are like painting a privy Imperial Red. “Studying the fundamentals and cultivating one's nature—how can you be angry at not being known by people? The Way is originally perfectly produced. Why should I seek to be used by the world? ” 114


[HBJ070623a22 ]出家人習外典、如以刀割泥。泥無所用
[HBJ070623a23 ]而刀自傷焉。

When a world-renunciant studies heterodox scriptures, it is like using a sword to cut mud: the mud is useless, and the sword itself will be damaged.


[HBJ070623a24 ]出家爲僧。豈細事乎。非求安逸也。
[HBJ070623b01 ]非求溫飽也。非求利名也。爲生死也。
[HBJ070623b02 ]爲斷煩惱也。爲續佛慧命也。
[HBJ070623b03 ]爲出三界度衆生也。

Is renouncing the world and becoming a monk a trifling matter? It is not done to take it easy; it is not done to seek food and clothing; it is not done to seek fame and profit; it is done to deal with birth-and-death; it is done to eliminate affliction; it is done to transmit the Buddha's wisdom and life; it is done to transcend the triple realm and save sentient beings.


[HBJ070623b04 ]經云、無常之火 燒諸世間。又曰、衆生苦火
[HBJ070623b05 ]四面倶焚。又云、諸煩惱賊 常伺殺人。
[HBJ070623b06 ]道人宜自警悟 如救頭燃。

A sutra says: “The fires of impermanence burn away all worlds.” It also says: “The fires of human suffering burn us from all four sides.” 115 It also says: “The affliction-bandits are always seeking to kill people.” 116 Therefore, men of the Way should be on alert, as if rescuing someone who's hair is on fire.


[HBJ070623b07 ]貪世浮名 枉功勞形。營求世利
[HBJ070623b08 ]業火加薪。

Craving ephemeral worldly reputation is to distort the form of a monk. 117 Seeking worldly profit adds fuel to the fires of karma.


[HBJ070623b09 ]先德云、名利衲子 不如草衣野人。
[HBJ070623b10 ]末法羊質虎皮之輩 不識廉耻。
[HBJ070623b11 ]望風隨勢 陰媚取寵。噫其懲也夫。

An ancient worthy said: “A famous and profiteering patch-robe monk is not as good as a bumpkin in straw clothes. Those of the degenerate age who are sheep in tigerskins have no sense of shame. They long for the customs of the day, going along with the trends, secretly flattering and currying favor. Aah, they need to be taught a lesson!”


[HBJ070623b12 ]先德云、末世佛法 變於人情 以世利
[HBJ070623b13 ]賤賣可悲。

An ancient worthy said: “The Buddhadharma in the degenerate age tends toward the values of ordinary human discrimination. For the sake of worldly profit it is sold cheaply. It's pitiful.”


[HBJ070623b14 ]經云、云何賊人 假我衣服 裨販如來
[HBJ070623b15 ]造種種業。
[HBJ070623b16 ]末法比丘 有多般名字 或鳥鼠僧、
[HBJ070623b17 ]或啞羊僧、或秃居士、或地獄滓、
[HBJ070623b18 ]或披袈裟賊。噫其所以以此。

A sutra says: “How can thieves who wear the saṃgha-robe cheaply peddle the Tathāgata undertaking various activities.” 118 Monks of the degenerate age have many names: some are called bat-monks, 119 some are called sheep monks, 120 some are called bald householders, some are called dregs of hell, some are call kaṣāya-wearing thieves. What is to be done about them?


[HBJ070623b19 ]於戲 佛子 一衣一食 莫非農夫之血、
[HBJ070623b20 ]織女之苦。道眼未明 如何消得(如木菌等)。
[HBJ070623b21 ]故曰要識披毛戴角底麼 卽今虛受信施者是。

Aah! Disciples of the Buddha: your robe and meals are nothing other than the blood of the farmer, the suffering of the spinster. With the eye of the Way not yet clear, how will you consume these offerings [It is like the [story of] mushrooms that grow at the base of trees, etc.] 121 Hence it is said: Is it necessary to know about the beasts? This is the same as someone who vainly receives belief and alms.


[HBJ070623b22 ]有人未飢而食 未寒而衣。
[HBJ070623b23 ]是誠何心哉。都不思目前之樂
[HBJ070623b24 ]便是身後之苦也。

There are people who eat without being hungry, and who wear clothes without being cold. Really, what kind of mentality is this? They are definitely not reflecting on the fact that the pleasure that is right in front of them is will be their suffering after death.


[HBJ070623c01 ]故曰、寧以熱鐵纏身 不受信心人衣
[HBJ070623c02 ]寧以洋銅灌口 不受信心人食 。
[HBJ070623c03 ]寧以鐵鑊投身 不受信心人房舍等(廣如梵網經說) 。

Hence it is said: “I would rather be shackled with hot irons than [with the body that has broken the precepts] accept offerings of clothing from faithful donors. I would rather irrigate my mouth with molten copper than [with the body that has broken the precepts] accept offerings of food from faithful donors. I would rather throw myself into a boiling cauldron than receive lodging from faithful donors.” [This is explained in detail in the Sutra of Brahmā's Net.] 122


[HBJ070623c04 ]故曰、道人進食如進毒、受施如受箭
[HBJ070623c05 ]幣厚言甘 道人所畏。

Hence it is said that for the man of the Way, taking a meal is like taking poison. Receiving alms is like being shot with an arrow. Rich presents and sweet words—these are what the man of the Way is afraid of. 123


[HBJ070623c06 ]故曰、逆境界易打 順境界難打。

Hence it is said: “Adversity is easy to deal with; agreeable circumstances are difficult to deal with.” 124


[HBJ070623c07 ]故曰、修道之人 如一塊磨刀之石。
[HBJ070623c08 ]張三也來磨 李四也來磨 磨來磨去。
[HBJ070623c09 ]別人刀快 而自家石漸消。然有人更嫌他人
[HBJ070623c10 ]不來我石上磨。實爲可惜。

Hence it is said: “The man of the Way is like a piece of whetstone that every Tom, Dick, and Harry comes to use for sharpening, and these sharpeners are always coming and going. While the swords of others cut well, one's own stone becomes worn down to nothing. In this case, there are some who get angry at others for no longer coming to sharpen their swords with his stone.” What a pity indeed! 125


[HBJ070623c11 ]故古語亦有之 曰三途苦未是苦
[HBJ070623c12 ]袈裟下失人身 始是苦也。

Therefore there is another ancient saying that reflects this. It goes: “The suffering of the three unfortunate destinies is not yet suffering. When one loses one's human form under the kaṣāya, this is the beginning of suffering.”


[HBJ070623c13 ]咄哉 此身九孔常流 百千癰疸 一片薄皮。
[HBJ070623c14 ]又云、革囊盛糞 膿血之聚 臭穢可鄙
[HBJ070623c15 ]無貪惜之。何況百年將養
[HBJ070623c16 ]一息背恩經。

Alas! The nine orifices of the body are always flowing; a hundred thousand ulcers permeate on piece of skin. It is also said: “[The body is a ] leather sack, filled with shit; a glob of pus and blood, it is smelly and disgusting..” 126 Don't cling to it. Even worse, after nurturing it for a hundred years, in a single breath it ungratefully passes away


[HBJ070623c17 ]又云、凡登厠不洗淨者 不得入大僧數
[HBJ070623c18 ]不得坐禪床。 又云、以觸手禮佛請經者
[HBJ070623c19 ]必當作厠蟲。

It is also said: “Those who do not wash themselves after using the toilet are not able to enter the saṃgha, and are not able to sit on the meditation cushion.” It is also said: “Those who with soiled hands pay obeisance to the Buddha and handle the scriptures definitely will definitely be reborn as toilet maggots.”


[HBJ070623c20 ]凡入厠時 先須彈指三下 以警在穢之鬼
[HBJ070623c21 ]不可痰吐 不可語言作聲 亦不可畫
[HBJ070623c22 ]壁書字 亦須省約用籌 點滴使水。
[HBJ070624a01 ]默誦五神呪(散在諸錄) 著實洗淨(各限七度)。

Whenever you enter the toilet, you must first knock three times so as to warn the spirits of the privy. You should not spit phlegm, and you should not begin to talk; you should also not write graffiti on the walls; you must also economize when using wiping sticks, and use water only a few drops at a time. You should silently chant the mantra of the five gods [Which can be found scattered in various records.] and clean carefully [Wipe seven times in each place.].


[HBJ070624a02 ]經云、若不持誦五呪者 縱用七恆河水
[HBJ070624a03 ]洗至金剛水際 亦不得身器淸淨。

A sutra says: “If you don't chant the five mantras, then even if you use the water from seven Ganges rivers and wash at the edge of the Adamantine River, you will not be able to purify the bodily organs.”


[HBJ070624a04 ]洗淨須用冷水。洗手須用灰泥木屑等
[HBJ070624a05 ]一一如法(具如經說)。

When washing at the toilet you must use cold water. When you wash your hands, you should use plaster, wood chips, and so forth. Each should be performed according to the Dharma. [The instructions for which are fully provided in the sutras.]


[HBJ070624a06 ]槽中莫停死水 水留三日 必生細蟲
[HBJ070624a07 ]須頻換水 免傷物命。

Don't keep stagnant water in the wash tub; once water sits for three days, it will get buggy. You must frequently change the water to avoid harming life. 127


[HBJ070624a08 ]實際理地 不受一塵。佛事門中
[HBJ070624a09 ]不捨一法。

In the true ground of reality not even a single piece of dust is allowed, but in Buddhist-centered activities, not a single dharma is rejected. 128


[HBJ070624a10 ]大抵道人 宜應端心 以質直爲本。
[HBJ070624a11 ]一瓢一衲 旅泊無累。凡出言涉典章
[HBJ070624a12 ]說法乃稽古。語是心苗。豈恣胸臆。

Generally, the man of the Way should be upright in mind, taking honesty as his basis. With one bowl and one robe, he wanders aimlessly without constraints. When he speaks he touches on the sections of the classics, while his explanation of the Dharma tends toward ancient precedents. Language is the sprout of the mind: how can one be selfish with one's true feelings?


[HBJ070624a13 ]佛言心如直絃。淨名云、直心是道塲
[HBJ070624a14 ]直心是淨土。

The Buddha said “The [bhikṣu's] mind is like the straight string of a musical instrument.” 129 Vimalakīrti said: “Straight mind is the site of enlightenment,” 130 and “Straight mind is the Pure Land.” 131


[HBJ070624a15 ]有罪卽懺悔 發業卽慚愧。有丈夫氣象
[HBJ070624a16 ]又,改過自新、罪隨心滅。又、知非底一念
[HBJ070624a17 ]成佛作祖基本。

Having sin, you directly repent; generating activity, you straightaway feel shame. This is the attitude of a great man. Furthermore, in repentance you are renewed, as your sin as extinguished according to your state of mind. Furthermore, awareness of your faults for even a single moment is the basis for becoming a buddha, or making yourself into a patriarch.


[HBJ070624a18 ]凡夫取境 道人取心。心境兩忘 乃是
[HBJ070624a19 ]眞法。

Ordinary people cling to objects; the man of the Way clings to his mind. Mind and objects both forgotten—this is the true Dharma.


[HBJ070624a20 ]聲聞宴坐林中 被魔王捉。菩薩遊戲世間
[HBJ070624a21 ]外魔不覓 。

The śrāvaka meditating in the forest is arrested by the Māra King. The bodhisattva wandering in the mundane world is beyond the scope of Māra.


[HBJ070624a21 ]衆生迷(己)逐物、故說諸法
[HBJ070624a22 ]本來空寂。爲第一體句。又、恐沉空滯寂
[HBJ070624a23 ]故說恆河沙妙用 爲第二用句。
[HBJ070624a24 ]又、是走殺兩頭 故說不空不有
[HBJ070624b01 ]爲第三體用句 此佛祖不易之軌則也。

Sentient beings deludedly chase after things, and therefore the Buddha says that all dharmas are originally void. This is the first phrase, on the essence. Then, afraid that they will sink into emptiness and attach to quiescence, he teaches that marvelous functions are as numerous as the grains of sand in the Ganges. This is the second phrase, on the function. This then forces one to run to both extremes, and therefore he teaches neither emptiness nor existence—this is the third phrase, treating essence and function. This is the unchanging standard of the buddhas and patriarchs.


[HBJ070624b02 ]大抵衆生 外迷著相 內迷*著空。

In general, sentient beings who are deluded externally, attach to characteristics; those who are deluded internally, attach to emptiness.


[HBJ070624b03 ]經云、衆生虛妄浮心 多諸巧見
[HBJ070624b04 ]先德云、禪學者 取湛然不動淸淨境界
[HBJ070624b05 ]爲是佛法也。大錯也。古云湛湛黑暗深坑
[HBJ070624b06 ]寔可怖畏。

A sutra says: “The false floating mind of sentient beings, with many clever views…” 132

An ancient worthy said: “If students of Chan grasp the serene and unmoving purified realm and take it as the Buddhadharma, this is a big mistake.” An ancient said: “A deep, dark, fathomless pit—this is truly to be feared.”


[HBJ070624b07 ]禪學者 本地風光 若未發明 則孤峭玄關
[HBJ070624b08 ]擬從何透。徃徃斷滅空以爲禪
[HBJ070624b09 ]無記空以爲道。一切倶無以爲高見
[HBJ070624b10 ]此冥然頑空 受病幽矣。今天下之言禪者
[HBJ070624b11 ]多坐在此病。

If students of Chan are not yet aware of their own original state of mind, then based on what will they gain passage at the solitary checkpoint? They are always taking extinction-emptiness as Chan, and responseless-emptiness as the Way. All things being completely nonexistent is taken as a lofty view. This is ignorant and one-sided emptiness, by which you incur sickness and gloom! Most of the present Chan practitioners of the world sit dwelling in this sickness.


[HBJ070624b12 ]宗師亦有多病。病在耳目者 以瞠眉努目
[HBJ070624b13 ]側耳點頭爲禪。病在口舌者
[HBJ070624b14 ]以顚言倒語 胡喝亂喝爲禪。病在手足者
[HBJ070624b15 ]以進前退後 指東畫西爲禪。病在心腹者
[HBJ070624b16 ]以窮玄究妙 超情離見爲禪。據實而論
[HBJ070624b17 ]無非是病。

Teachers of our school have many sicknesses. Those who have sicknesses of the ears and eyes take raised brows, glaring eyes, bending the ear to listen, and nodding of the head as Chan. Those who have sicknesses of the mouth and tongue take crazy talk and shouting to be Chan. Those with sicknesses of the hands and feet take going front and back, or gesturing madly while talking to be Chan. Those who are ill in their heart and stomach take profundity and arcaneness, transcendence of the feelings and separation from views to be Chan. In fact, these are all sicknesses.


[HBJ070624b18 ]凡人臨命終時 若一毫 凡聖情量不盡
[HBJ070624b19 ]思慮未忘 向驢胎馬腹裏托質 泥犁鑊湯中煑煠
[HBJ070624b20 ]乃至依前再爲螻蟻蚊蝱。

When an ordinary man approaches his death, if one iota of the discrimination between mundane and holy remains, and if conceptualization is not forgotten, he will be reborn in the womb of a donkey or the belly of a horse. He will boil in the cauldrons of the Joyless Hell, or even before that be reborn as a cricket, ant, mosquito, or horsefly.


[HBJ070624b21 ]凡人臨命終時 但觀五蘊皆空 四大無我
[HBJ070624b22 ]眞心無相 不去不來 生時性亦不生
[HBJ070624b23 ]死時性亦不去。湛然圓寂 心境一如。

When an ordinary man approaches death, he should merely contemplate on the emptiness of the five aggregates. There is no self in the four elements, and no characteristics in the true mind; it neither comes nor goes. The nature at birth is not produced, and the nature at death does not disappear. There will be deep and profound quiescence, with the mind and its objects merging in the single thusness.


[HBJ070624b24 ]但能如是 直下頓了 不爲三世所拘繫
[HBJ070624c01 ]便是出世自由人也。若見諸佛
[HBJ070624c02 ]無心隨去。若見地獄 無心怖畏。
[HBJ070624c03 ]但自忘心 同於法界。此卽是要節也。
[HBJ070624c04 ]然則平常是因、臨終是果。道人須着眼看。

If you can just do like this, then you will immediately experience full realization, and not be bound by the three divisions of time. You become a free person who has transcended the mundane world. If you see buddhas, have no thought of running after them. If you see hells, have no thought of fear. Forgetting your own mind, you should do the same in regards to the realm of reality. This is what is essential. Nonetheless it is your everyday activities that are the cause, and arriving to your death is the result. The man of the Way must keep his eyes on the ball.


[HBJ070624c05 ]若能悟我本空、生死怖畏都息。

If you are able to awaken to the original emptiness of the self, your fear of birth-and-death will entirely disappear.


[HBJ070624c06 ]祖師云、不坐禪不持律 妙覺心珠白如日。
[HBJ070624c07 ]當體虛玄一物無。阿誰承受燃燈佛。
[HBJ070624c08 ]是故釋迦八相 聲聞曲見 凡夫劣解。
[HBJ070624c09 ]龐居士所謂學無爲心空及第者
[HBJ070624c10 ]便是此意。

A patriarch said: “Without sitting in meditation, without observing the precepts, the jewel that is the marvelously enlightened mind is bright like the sun. It is profoundly void just as it is, having not a single thing. Who could succeed Dīpaṃkara Buddha? Therefore the eight junctures of the life of Śākyamuni are perceived distortedly by śrāvakas and poorly understood by ordinary people.” This is what Layman Pang was talking about when he said that those who study the unconditioned and who have emptied their minds have made the grade.


[HBJ070624c11 ]禪學者 要須識句始得。

Students of Chan must tune into the phrase (of the kōan) and get it for the first time.


[HBJ070624c12 ]本分宗師 全提此句 如木人唱拍
[HBJ070624c13 ]紅爐點雪。亦如石火電光。學者實不可擬議也。
[HBJ070624c14 ]故古人知師恩曰、不重先師道德
[HBJ070624c15 ]只重先師不爲我說破。此禪家格言。

When an original-share teacher of our school offers up this phrase, it is like a shouting and clapping of a wooden puppet, like a snowflake on a hot stove. It is also like the spark from a flintstone, a flash of lightning. Students must not hesitate. Therefore an ancient who was aware of the kindness received from his teacher, said, “I don't venerate the Way and the virtue of my former teacher; I simply venerate the fact my former teachers did not explain or refute for us. This is a maxim of the Chan school.”


[HBJ070624c16 ]大抵學者 先須詳辨宗道。昔馬祖一喝也、
[HBJ070624c17 ]百丈耳䏊、黃蘗吐舌。這一喝便是拈花消息
[HBJ070624c18 ]亦是達摩初來底面目
[HBJ070624c19 ]吁此臨濟宗之淵源也。

As a basic principle, students should first carefully discern the way of our school. In the past, the single shout of Mazu made Baizhang deaf, and made Huangbo spit out his tongue. Encountering the single shout was precisely the same as the situation of holding up the flower. Indeed, this is the original form of Bodhidharma's first coming. Aah, this is the deep source of the Linji school!


[HBJ070624c20 ]大凡一句中具三玄 一玄中具三要
[HBJ070625a01 ]一句者 無文綵印也。三玄三要者 有文綵也
[HBJ070625a02 ]權實是玄 照用是要。

In principle, one phrase contains three profundities, and each profundity contains three essentials. The one phrase is a seal that lacks any designs. The three profundities and three essentials have designs. The expedient and real are the profundity; the illuminating function is the essential.


[HBJ070625a03 ]一要照卽大機 二要照卽大用 三要照用同時。

The illumination of one essential is great capacity; the second essential is great function; the third essential is simultaneous illumination and function.


[HBJ070625a05 ]一體中玄 (三世一念等) 二句中玄 (徑截言句等) 三玄中玄
[HBJ070625a06 ](良久棒喝等)。

The first [of the three profundities] is profundity in regard to the essence [The three time divisions in a single thought-moment and so forth. ] The second is profundity in regard to the phrase. [Shortcut phrases and so forth.] The third is profundity in regard to profundity. [Silence, the staff and shout, and so forth.]


[HBJ070625a07 ]臨濟喝 德山棒 皆徹證無生 透頂透底
[HBJ070625a08 ]大機大用 自在無方 全身出沒
[HBJ070625a09 ]全身擔荷 退守文殊普賢大人境界。
[HBJ070625a10 ]然據實而論 此二師亦不免偸心鬼子(大機以圓應爲義 大用以直截爲義) 。

The shout of Linji and the staff of Deshan both fully actualized nonarising; they penetrated from top to bottom; they demonstrated great capacity and great function, unimpeded, without limitation, their entire body emerging and submerging, without their entire body carrying the burden. They withdrew and secluded themselves to preserve the realm of great persons like Mañjuśrī and Samantabhadra. But to tell you the truth, these two masters did not avoid the devil who steals the mind. [Great capacity has the meaning of perfect response; great function refers to the shortcut method.]


[HBJ070625a11 ]大丈夫見佛見祖如寃家。若着佛求被佛縛
[HBJ070625a12 ]若着祖求 被祖縛。
[HBJ070625a13 ]有求皆苦 不如無事。

A great personage looks upon the buddhas and patriarchs as his enemies. If you are attached to seeking the buddhas, you are bound by the buddhas; if you are attached to seeking the patriarchs, you are bound by the patriarchs. Any kind of seeking is suffering, which is not as good as doing nothing.


[HBJ070625a14 ]先德云、神光不昧 萬古徽猷。入此門來
[HBJ070625a15 ]莫存知解。所謂金屑雖貴 落眼成翳
[HBJ070625a16 ] 又不以智知 不以識識。

An ancient worthy said: “The spiritual luminosity is undarkened; it has been beautiful for an eternity. If you enter this gate, you should not keep intellectual understandings. This is what is meant by saying that even though gold dust is expensive, if it falls into your eye it will cause a cataract. Furthermore, you should not use your cleverness, and you should not use your acuity.”


[HBJ070625a17 ]古云儒植根 老培根 釋拔根。其次序槩
[HBJ070625a18 ]可見矣。今爲初學 略開三門戶而通之爾。
[HBJ070625a19 ]他日若開心眼則必大笑而罵之。

An ancient said: “Confucianism plants the root; Daoism nurtures the root; Buddhism pulls out the root. Can't this order generally be seen? Now, for beginning students I have opened up three doors and simply passed through them. But on another day, if your mind's eye is opened, you will certainly have a big laugh and criticize this.”

2.4. Bibliography

2.4.1. Classical

Chanyuan zhuquan ji duxu 禪源諸詮集都序. 4 fasc T 2015.48.397–415.

Xuanjue 玄覺 Chanzong Yongjia ji 禪宗永嘉集 (The Compilation of Yongjia of the Chan School). T 2013.48.387b–395c

Changuan cejin 禪關策進. 1 fasc T 2024.48.1097.

Dafangguang yuanjue xiuduluo liaoyi jing 大方廣圓覺修多羅了義經 (Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment)). 1 fasc., T 842.17.913a–922a.

Dafangguang fo huayanjing suishu yanyi chao 大方廣佛華嚴經隨疏演義鈔. 90 fasc T 1736.36.1–701.

Dafangguang yuanjue xiuduoluo liaoyi jing lüeshuzhu 大方廣圓覺修多羅了義經略疏註. 4 fasc T 1795.39.524.

Dahui pujue chanshi yulu 大慧普覺禪師語錄. 30 fasc T 1998a.47.811–943.

Dasheng bensheng xindi guan jing 大乘本生心地觀經. 8 fasc T 159.3.291–331.

attrib. Aśvaghoṣa. Dasheng qixin lun 大乘起信論 (Treatise on Awakening of Mahāyāna Faith). T 1666.32.575b–583b

Fanwang jing 梵網經 (Sutra of Brahmā's Net). 2 fasc T 1484.24.997–1010.

Fochui banniepan lüeshuo jiaojie jing 佛垂般涅槃略說教誡經. 1 fasc T 389.12.1110–1112.

Fozu lidai tongzai 佛祖歷代通載. 22 fasc T 2036.49.477–737.

Gihwa. Geumgang banyabaramilgyeong oga hae seorui 金剛般若波羅蜜經五家解説誼 (Annotation of the Redaction of Five Commentaries on the ). HBJ 7.10-107

----. Hyeonjeong non 顯正論 (Exposition of Orthodoxy). HBJ 7.217–225.

Huangbo Duanji Chanshi wanling lu 黃檗斷際禪師宛陵錄. 1 fasc T 2012b.48.384.

Jingde chuandeng lu 景德傳燈錄. 30 fasc T 2076.51.196–469.

Kumārajīva 鳩摩羅什Jingang bore boluomi jing 金剛般若波羅蜜經 (Vajracchedikā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra) (Diamond Sutra). 1 fasc. T 235.8.748c–752c.

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T 2008.48.346a–362b

attributed to Pramiti 般刺蜜帝, but probably apocryphal. Shou lengyan jing 首楞嚴大般涅槃經 (Śūraṃgama-sūtra). 10 fasc T 945.106b–155b.

Miaofa lianhua jing 妙法蓮華經 (Lotus Sūtra). T 262.9.1a–63.

Tanzhou Guishan Lingyou Chanshi yulu 潭州潙山靈祐禪師語錄. 1 fasc T 1989.47.577–582.

Weimojie suoshuo jing 維摩詰所說經 (Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa-sūtra). 3 fasc T 475.14.537–557.

Yuanwu Foguo Chanshi yulu 圓悟佛果禪師語錄. 20 fasc T 1997.47.713–811.

Zimen jingxun 緇門警訓. 10 fasc T 2023.48.1040–1097.

Zuishangsheng lun 最上乘論. 1 fasc T 2011.48.377–379.

2.4.2. Modern

Kim, Jongmyung. 2012. “Hyujŏng’s Sŏn’ga kwigam and its Historical Setting and Soteriological Strategies.”  In Zen Buddhist Rhetoric in China, Korea, and Japan. Leiden:  Brill.

Lee, Young Ho. 1992. “Samga Kwigam of Hyujŏng and the Three Religions [Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism in 16th-cent Korean text; il].”  In Buddhist Christian Studies vol. 12 43-64.

----. 1993. “The Ideal Mirror of the Three Religions: the 'Samga Kwigam' of the Hyujŏng. (Vitality in Korean Buddhist Tradition).”  In Korea Journal vol. 33, n3 (Autumn) 56-67.

Legge, James. 1967. The Book of Poetry. New York:  Paragon Book Reprint Corp..

Luk, Charles (Lu K'uan Yü). 1978. The Surangama Sūtra. With an Abridged Commentary by Ch'an Master Han-shan. Indianapolis, Ind.:  B.I. Publications.

Lynn, Richard John. 1999. The Classic of the Way and Virtue: A New Translation of the Tao-Te Ching of Laozi as Interpreted by Wang Bi. New York:  Columbia University Press.

Muller, A. Charles, trans. 2012. The Analects of Confucius.

----, trans. 1993. Daode jing 道德經.

----. 2012. Digital Dictionary of Buddhism.

----, trans. 2013. Doctrine of the Mean.

----. 2012. Exposition of the Sutra of Brahmā's Net Seoul:  Compilation Committee of Korean Buddhist Thought, Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism,. vol. XI The Collected Works of Korean Buddhism.

----. 2013. “Zen Views on Views (dṛṣṭi): Are We Ever Rid of Them?” In Japan Mission Journal vol. 67 (1) 28-33.

1968. The Complete Works of Chuang-tzu. New York:  Columbia University Press.

Ziporyn, Brook. 2009. Zhuangzi: The Essential Writings with Selections from Traditional Commentaries. Indianapolis:  Hackett Pub. Co..


Notes

1. See Muller, “Zen Views on Views.”

2. One notable exception can be seen in ancient India, when the various philosophical systems agreed on a system of debate, and shared sufficiently in a world-view that allowed debate among Buddhists, Jains, Sāṃkhyas, Vedantists, and so forth.

3. Although Daoism is inevitably included as one of the “three traditions” in this discourse, there were rarely any actual Daoist leaders or scholars involved in the discussion in Song China or Goryeo-Joseon Korea. Nonetheless, Daoist thought is inevitably included as a kind of bridge of discourse between the two traditions. Daoist thought also had a significant influence on the formation of both Neo-Confucianism and Chan.

4. The locus classicus for the account of the process of deviation is the Doctrine of the Mean.

5. The locus classicus for this doctrine pristine awareness being fractured by the initial movement of the mind is the Awakening of Mahāyāna Faith (Dasheng qixin lun).

6. From the Doctrine of the Mean.

7. Analects 17:17

8. Dong Zhongshu (176–104 BCE) was a Confucian scholar of the former Han who was deeply involved at the top level of the imperial government in terms of implementing policies based on Confucian ideology. He studied the Gongyang Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals (Chunqiu gongyang) 春秋公羊 in depth, and during the reign of Jingdi 景帝 was honored with the rank of official court scholar 博士. During the reign of Wudi 武帝 he was used as the mouthpiece of the government in its implementation of Confucian legalist policies as a means of controlling the state. Later on, he became a minister to King Jiaoxi 膠西 after which he retired to a life of writing. Among the most famous of his works is the Chunqiu fanlu 春秋繁露. Hyujeong gets this citation from Zhu Xi's Commentary on the Doctrine of the Mean.

9. Cai Chen (1167–1230) was Confucian scholar of the Southern Song from Jianyang 建陽 (present-day Fujian 福建 Province), a student of Zhu Xi 朱熹, the son of Cai Yuanding 蔡元定. He spent most of his adult life avoiding government service, living as a recluse in Jiu Feng 九峰, and is thus also known as the teacher Jiu Feng 九峰先生. Among his writings are the Shujing jichuan 書經集傳 and the Hongfan huangji neipian 洪範皇極內篇, required reading for students in the Yuan, Ming, and Qing periods.

10. Maoshu 茂叔 is the style of Zhou Dunyi 周敦頤 (1017–1073), also known as Lianxi 濂溪, after the place of his home. He is considered to be the first of the Neo-Confucian philosophers—the founder of Song Learning 宋學. It was Zhou who fully brought the focus of Song Confucian studies to the inquiry regarding the heart/mind , human nature , and philosophical principles . He was a low rank official, but an eminent scholar. He was known for his fearlessness and sense of justice in criticizing those of higher rank at the expense of his own career. In his two major writings, An Explanation of the Diagram of the Supreme Polarity 太極圖說 and the Tong Shu 通書, Zhou explored the origin, movement, and principles of the universe, attempting to establish a universal view that the human being and all things were one body. His theories had a profound influence on later Neo-Confucian thinkers such as the Cheng brothers and Zhu Xi.

11. Shuchuan xu 書傳序 is an abbreviation for Shujingjichuan xu 書經集傳序, by Zhu Xi.

12. Emperors Yao 帝堯 and Shun 帝舜, the two legendary sage-emperors from Chinese antiquity, who are commonly mentioned in the Confucian classics as paragons in the implementation of wisdom and humanity in governing the people. Yu of the Xia dynasty had served as an assistant to both these emperors, excelling in public works projects such as the control of the flooding of the Yellow River. He succeeded Shun's rulership.

13. (1646–?BCE), legendary founder of the Shang Dynasty.

14. King Wu of Zhou 周武王 (–1043), personal name Ji Fa 姬發, reigned 1046–1043 BCE as first king of the Western Zhou.

15. See http://mokusai-web.com/shushigakukihonsho/shokyou/shokyou_0_jo.html.

16. The opening passage of the Doctrine of the Mean says: “What Heaven confers is called ‘nature.’ Accordance with this nature is called the Way. Cultivating the Way is called ‘education.’” 天命之謂性。率性之謂道。修道之謂教。 See http://www.acmuller.net/con-dao/docofmean.html.

17. Essence-function (che-yong) refers to the internal/external, hidden/manifest, fundamental/superficial aspects of any person, thing, or situation, referring most commonly to the most fundamental nature of the human mind and its manifest activity/appearances. One of the most important and pervasive metaphysical categories in East Asian philosophical thought. Usually considered to be first articulated as such by Wangbi 王弼, but can be seen as a thematic governing principle in the earliest of texts such as the Yijing 易經 and Liji 禮記, where the same concept is worked out in the form of “roots and branches” 本末. See the introduction to my Plumbing Essence and Function: The Culmination of the Korean Buddhist-Confucian Debate.

18. The “great polarity.” The great tension between yin and yang that exists before actual differentiation into heaven and earth. Thus, the origin of the myriad phenomena.

19. Zi Si (c. 483–402 BCE) was the grandson of Confucius, attributed with authorship of the Doctrine of the Mean.

20. It is a distinctive Confucian admonishment that one should be cautious when alone, meaning the maintenance of self-awareness regarding secret thoughts, desires. The Doctrine of the Mean says: “The Noble Man is cautious when he is alone.” 君子愼其獨也.

21. “Forming a single body with heaven and earth and myriad things” is one of the most frequently repeated quotes from Chenghao in the Neo-Confucian literature. See Ercheng quanshu 二程全書, fasc. 2. “Yishuerxianshengyu” 遺書二先生語, part 2. http://mokusai-web.com/shushigakukihonsho/niteizensho/niteizensho_02.html.

22. See Erchengquanshu fasc. 19. 二程全書卷之十九: “Yishuyichuanxianshengyu”, part 4. 遺書伊川先生語第四 Liuyuanchengshoubian 劉元承手編.

23. http://mokusai-web.com/shushigakukihonsho/shokyou/shokyou_1_gusho_body.html

24. The following text is added as a note to the HBJ, where it is given as a comparative citation from Joseon Bulgyo Jungang Gyuomunwon.

25. Introduced above as exemplars of benevolent rulers.

26. King Jie of the Xia and King Zhou of the Yin , both evil rulers who lost themselves completely in the enjoyment of luxury, and are known in posterity as examples of corrupt and evil rulership.

27. See Analects 14:14.

28. Analects 1:8: The Master said: “If the noble man is not ‘heavy,’ then he will not inspire awe in others. If he is not learned, then he will not be on firm ground. He takes loyalty and good faith to be of primary importance, and has no friends who are not of equal (moral) caliber. When he makes a mistake, he doesn't hesitate to correct it.”

29. Yong Ho Lee renders oppositely: “Although you are deceived by someone, you are better not expressing it in words, [since whatever you do] there will be a residual effect.” Lee, 145.

30. Analects 7:14: When Confucius was in Qi, he heard the Shao music, and for three months did not know the taste of meat. He said, “I never knew music could reach this level of excellence!”

31. Book of Odes, 16:3.

32. Invoking Daode jing Chapter 25. http://www.acmuller.net/con-dao/daodejing.html.

33. Three generative forces; according to the Yijing, the three kinds of creative loci that give form to the world: heaven , earth , and man .

34. Daode jing Ch. 1

35. Also paraphrasing Daode jing, Ch. 1.

36. The linking of the dao with essence, and de with function is first done in Wang Bi's commentary on the Daode jing. See Richard Lynn, The Classic of the Way and Virtue.

37. Watson, Complete Works of Chuang-tzu, p. 32.

38. Watson, Complete Works of Chuang-tzu, p. 47.

39. Watson, Complete Works of Chuang-tzu, p. 49.

40. Daode jing Ch. 25.

41. Daode jing Ch. 66.

42. Daode jing Ch. 34.

43. Daode jing p. 79.

44. Daode jing Ch. 73.

45. Daode jing Ch. 77.

46. 靡曼皓齒,鄭衛之音,務以自樂,命之曰伐性*之斧。{呂氏春秋•本性}

47. Replacing 葛 with 褐, since 被褐懷玉 is a known set phrase from the Daodejing .

48. Daode jing Ch. 12.

49. Daode jing Ch. 12.

50. Daode jing Ch. 70.

51. Zhuangzi, 內 篇 ﹒ 德 充 符 第 五)

52. Daode jing, Ch. 44.

53. Daode jing, Ch. 46.

54. Daode jing, Ch. 81.

55. Daode jing, Ch. 63.

56. Zhuangzi, Ch. 4.

57. Zhuangzi, Ch. 20.

58. Zhuangzi, Ch. 13: 老子曰:「夫巧知神聖之人,吾自以為脫焉。昔者子呼我牛也而謂之牛,呼我馬也而謂之馬。苟有其實,人與之名而弗受,再受其殃。Legge translates: “Yesterday if you had called me an ox, you might have done so; or if you had called me a horse, you might have done so. If there be a reality (corresponding to men's ideas), and men give it a name, which another will not receive, he will in the sequel suffer the more.”

59. Daode jing, Ch. 66.

60. Based on the meaning, as well as the source of the citation, it is clear that is corrupted from .

61. Zhuangzi, Ch. 5.

62. Bian Que (?–c. 379 BCE) was a famous doctor of the Warring States period, real name Qin Yueren. He learned secret medical knowledge from Chang Cangjun 長桑君, and was killed by Qin court doctor Li Xi 李醯, who was jealous of his abilities. Later his name becomes synonymous with “competent doctor.” 史記, 扁鵲倉公傳

63. Zhuangzi, Ch. 23. 出無本、入無竅、有實而無乎處.

64. From Zhuangzi “The Old Fisherman” 莊子, 漁父. Regarding a fool who wanted to escape his shadow, and stop making tracks. See Watson, Complete Works, p. 348.

65. Zhuangzi, Ch. 22.

66. Daode jing Ch. 56.

67. Watson, Complete Works, p. 302. 莊子·外物.

68. Zhuangzi, Ch. 22.

69. See Geumganga banya baramilgyeong oga hae seorui, 金剛般若波羅蜜經五家解, HBJ 7.10b20.

70. The three places (according to Chan tradition) where Śākyamuni is said to have transmitted his mind directly and without speech to Kāśyapa: at the Vulture Peak, 靈山 by a smile when plucking a flower; at the Bahu-putraka-caitya 多子塔 when he shared his seat with him; finally at Kuśinagara, when he put his foot out of his coffin 槨示雙趺.

71. Yuanwu Foguo Chanshi yulu 圓悟佛果禪師語錄 ; T 1997.47.796c19: 懶瓚和尚云。吾有一言絶慮忘縁。

72. “The grass turns green by itself,” is an example for the experience wherein when one becomes enlightened, everyone around appears to be a Buddha. See Fozu lidai tongzai 佛祖歷代通載 , T 2036.49.606c8: 兀然無事坐。春來草自靑.

73. Linji lu 臨濟錄 ; T 1985.47.502a11.

74. T 945.19.0121b20–22.

75. T 842.17.913c2 ff.

76. T 842.17.915c9.

77. T 475.14.541a8.

78. Liuzu tanjing 六祖壇經Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch ; T 2008.48.353b10–12.

79. Huangbo Duanji Chanshi wanling lu 黃檗斷際禪師宛陵錄 ;T 2012B.48.385c3.

80. Huangbo lu; T 2012B.48.386b–5.

81. Platform Sutra; T 2008.48.351b15.

82. Wumen guan 無門關; T 2005.48.292c12.

83. Wumen guan; T 2005.48.292c25.

84. Dahui pujue chanshi yulu 大慧普覺禪師語錄 ; T 1998A.47.0933c3–5.

85. T 1998A.47.921c2–3.

86. Seonga Gwigam 禪家龜鑑; X63n1255.739a12–13.

87. Changuan cejin 禪關策進 ; T 2024.48.1100c15–16.

88. The eight winds, or influences which stimulate affliction: (1) gain (to suit another's fancy); (2) loss (to act against another's wishes); (3) defamation (to speak ill of a person behind his back); (4) eulogy (to admire someone who is not present); (5) praise (to admire someone who is present); (6) ridicule, slander (7) pain (to afflict another's body and mind); (8) joy (to give pleasure to another).

89. Jingde chuandeng lu 景德傳燈錄 ; T 2076.51.265b1–2.

90. Two vehicles: These are the vehicle of the śrāvakas 聲聞 (hearers, direct disciples) and pratyekabuddhas 辟支佛 (self-realizers). These two kinds of practitioners are regularly introduced in Mahāyāna literature where they are generally cast in a negative light as representatives of the so-called Hīnayāna 小乘 tradition and are set up in contradistinction to the bodhisattva 菩薩. They are understood as practitioners who are engaged in a view toward practice and enlightenment that will permit them to reach the level of arhatship 阿羅漢 and not Buddhahood. This means that they are able to permanently sever the multitude of afflictions engendered by the three poisons 三毒. But they are unable to progress further along the path in the manner of the bodhisattva because of a lack in the development of their compassion 慈悲 for other beings as well as a limitation in their understanding of the emptiness of all phenomena . Thus, they are able to eliminate the afflictive hindrances 煩惱障 but not the cognitive hindrances 所知障. One of the first Mahāyāna scriptures to make detailed distinctions between the practitioners of the two vehicles and the bodhisattvas was the Śrīmālā-sūtra 勝鬘經. The Lotus Sutra teaches that śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas also become buddhas. (DDB)

91. Jingde chuandeng lu 景德傳燈錄 ; T 2076.51.443b26–28.

92. Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment; T 842.17.914a20.

93. Zongmi, Yuanjuejing lüeshu zhu 圓覺經略疏註; T 1795.39.541b6–8.

94. I take 四廣 as 四無量心.

95. See T 235.8.749a9-10.

96. Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment; T 842.17.917b23–24.

97. A number of early scriptures contain this kind of discussion, see, for example, Dasheng bensheng xindi guan jing 大乘本生心地觀經 T 159.3.303b17.

98. Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment ; T 842.17.919a21.

99. Chan Preface 禪源諸詮集都序; T 2015.48.399b9

100. The gist of this, written slightly differently, comes from the Lotus Sutra, T 262.9.8b23–25.

101. A śrāvaka is literally a voice-hearer, or simply a disciple. Originally, a direct disciple of the Buddha (who heard his voice). In later Mahāyāna 大乘 texts, a technical term with somewhat negative connotations. While śrāvakas are disciplined monk-practitioners who contemplate the principle of the four noble truths for the purpose of the attainment of arhat-ship 阿羅漢, and thus eventually nirvāṇa, they are also considered along with the pratyekabuddha 辟支佛, to be a practitioner of the two lesser vehicles (二乘, 小乘), inferior in insight and compassion to the bodhisattva 菩薩. This is because their practice is said to be self-centered, focusing on their own salvation 自利, a selfishness that is made possible by their lack of recognition of the emptiness of all objective phenomena 法空. For related reasons, in Yogâcāra, their practices are seen to be effective mainly in the removal of the afflictive hindrances 煩惱障, and not so effective in the removal of the cognitive hindrances 所知障. (DDB)

102. Pratyekabuddha. Transliteration of the Sanskrit, meaning solitary realizer, or self-enlightened one, individual illuminate, etc. In the early translations it was rendered 緣覺, i.e. enlightened through contemplation of dependent arising, especially as defined in the twelve nidānas 十二因緣. Later it was rendered 獨覺 or individually enlightened—one who lives apart from others and attains enlightenment alone, or for himself, making a contrast with the altruism of the bodhisattva principle. The usage of the term pratyekabuddha in India was not limited to Buddhists, also referring in general to recluses, such as members of the Jain sect, who ponder alone over the meaning of life, an illustration being the rhinoceros, which lives in isolation. As a degree of sainthood it is undefined by early Buddhism, receiving its definition at a later period. In Mahāyāna texts, it is mainly used as a disparaging term, an object for polemics, referring to a self-enlightened practitioner of the Hīnayāna path who, along with the śrāvaka 聲聞 and arhat 阿羅漢 can obtain his own emancipation but is incapable of ever enlightening others, while the perfectly enlightened Buddhas and bodhisattvas practice the six perfections for the enlightenment of others. For this reason the idea of the self-enlightened Buddha in Hīnayāna Buddhism is cited in comparison with the attitude of the bodhisattva 菩薩, whose priorities lie in interacting with and aiding others. (DDB)

103. The three karmas, or three modes of activities of word 口業, thought 意業, and deed 身業. Also written 身語心. (Skt. trīni-karmāṇi, trividha-dvāra) (DDB)

104. The great compassion of the buddhas and bodhisattvas, which is based on their awareness of their fundamental sameness with sentient beings. Also written 同體慈悲, with similar connotations being expressed in such terms as 同體智力. (DDB)

105. Dafangguang fo huayanjing suishu yanyi chao 大方廣佛華嚴經隨疏演義鈔 ; T 1736.36.301b13–14)

106. Zuishangsheng lun 最上乘論, attributed to Hongren; T 2011.48.377b20

107. The original text has rather than . (Zuishangsheng lun 最上乘論, T 2011.48.377b18)

108. The Platform Sutra says: 念念見性 常行平直 (T 2008.48.352a29)

109. Not found in this form in the Vimalakīrti. Hyujeong probably gets it from the Platform Sutra: 迷悟有殊見有遲疾。迷人念佛求生於彼。悟人自淨其心。T 2008.48.352a19–20.

110. 隨其心淨則佛土淨 (T 475.14.538c5)

111. From the Zimen jingxun 緇門警訓; T 2023.48.1079b16–17.

112. Jingde chuandeng lu 景德傳燈錄; T 2076.51.442c21–22

113. Zuishangsheng lun 最上乘論; T 2011.48.378a1.

114. T 2023.48.1078b7–8; see Analects 1:16: The Master said: “I am not bothered by the fact that I am unknown. I am bothered when I do not know others.”

115. Fochui banniepan lüeshuo jiaojie jing 佛垂般涅槃略說教誡經 T 389.12.1111a29

116. T 389.12.1111b1–1111b2

117. The compound word 功勞 is a translation for the Sanskrit śramaṇa; more commonly rendered as 沙門. (DDB)

118. Śūraṃgama-sūtra, T 945.19.132b11 – 12; Luk, Śūraṃgama-sūtra, p. 154.

119. I. e. one who breaks the precepts, with the elusiveness of a creature that is partly bird and partly mouse; also who chatters without meaning like the twittering of birds or the squeaking of rats.

120. 啞羊僧: A dumb monk, one who does not know good from bad, nor enough to repent of sin. (DDB)

121. Jinwol, n. 266, writes: Hyujŏng comments: “According to Chondung, because his eye of the Way had not been clear, a man of the Way became a tree mushroom [to be eaten by the donor] to return the faithful offering [to the giver].”

122. See the Sutra of Brahmā's Net, T 1484.24.1007c7: “I would rather wrap myself in a burning steel net of a thousand layers, than ever, with the body that has broken precepts regarding bodily actions, accept any offerings of clothing from faithful donors.” Muller, Exposition of the Sutra of Brahmā's Net, p. 384.

123. Zimen jingxun 緇門警訓, T 2023.48.1076c20

124. Dahui yulu 大慧語錄, T1998A.47.938a24

125. Zimen jingxun 緇門警訓, T 2023.48.1076c16–20

126. See Chanzong yongjia ji 禪宗永嘉集, T 2013.48.388c1–2

127. See Zimen jingxun 緇門警訓, T 2023.48.1092a6–8

128. Weishan Lingyou Chanshi yulu 溈山靈祐禪師語錄 T 1989.47.577c9

129. Śūraṃgama-sūtra 楞嚴經 T 945.19.132c22.

130. T 475.14.542c15

131. T 475.14.538b1

132. Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment p. 133; T 842.17.916a2