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XML Technical Notes on the Yogācāra Bibliography

[Download TEI-XML Source Files (with DTD and XSL)]

This bibliography of books and articles on Yogācāra is compiled based on the guidelines for XML encoding set forth by the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), using, in particular, TEI's recommended format for Structured Bibliographies— the <biblStruct> element and its sub-elements. It is the central aim of TEI to provide a standard for the smooth interchange of digitized scholarly research information, and thus to overcome the impediments and information loss incurred by proprietary software systems. Therefore, if you are motivated to supply further bibliographical information for this page, we would like to ask you to take a look at this simple set of templates and try to adopt them.

The basic format is fairly straightforward. Using XML structure, the <biblStruct> tag encloses one full bibliographical entry. The entry will include standard bibliographical data that are further enclosed by such tags as <title>, <author>, <publisher>, <date>, etc. <biblStruct> is a good example of the application of XML structural rules, in that if you put the tags in an illogical order, or you mispell, or forget to close a tag, XML editing software (actually the parsing program in that software) will reject it. One should keep in mind that this is only a storage format, and has little to do with how it is actually displayed. The display is handled by an XSL style sheet, which can output the data according to whatever format one needs.

XML tags also have what are known as attributes, which gives them further flexibility and power. As you will see in the examples below, the <title> tag has the following variants:

<title level="m"> : This indicates a published manuscript, which will normally be italicized on presentation.
<title level="u"> : This indicates an unpublished manuscript, such as a dissertation.
<title level="a"> : "a" means analytic, referring to an article in a journal or volume.
<title level="j">  : "j" means journal.
<title level="s">  : "s" means series.

This is just one example of a typical TEI structure. For more complete study, please go to the TEI Web Site.

Now, for the examples (you can copy and paste these as templates to make your own entries). As you can see, you don't need to worry about the punctuation (periods, commas, colons, quotes, etc.) as these are generated by the style sheet according to needs of the particular publication situation. You can see how these are displayed by looking at the bibliography itself:

Example 1: A standard published manuscript

  <biblStruct id="lusthaus-2002">
    <monogr>
      <author>Lusthaus, Dan</author>
      <title level="m">Buddhist Phenomenology: A Philosophical Investigation of
   Yogācāra Buddhism and the Ch'eng Wei-shih Lun</title>
      <imprint>
        <pubPlace>London</pubPlace>
        <publisher>RoutledgeCurzon</publisher>
        <date>2002</date>
      </imprint>
    </monogr>
  </biblStruct>


Example 2: An article in a volume

 <biblStruct>
    <analytic>
        <author>Weinstein, Stanley</author>
        <title level="a">The Ālaya-vijñāna in Early Yogācāra Buddhism--a Comparison of the
        Meaning in the Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra and Vijñapti-mātratā-siddhi
         of Dharmapāla</title>
      </analytic>
   <monogr>
       <title level="m">Transactions of the
      International Conference of Orientalists in
      Japan</title>
    <imprint>
       <biblScope type="pages">46-58</biblScope>
       <pubPlace>Tokyo</pubPlace>
       <publisher>Toho Gakkai</publisher>
       <date>1958</date>
     </imprint>
 </monogr>
</biblStruct>


Example 3: An article in a journal

  <biblStruct id="Sponberg-1979">
     <analytic>
       <author>Sponberg, Alan</author>
       <title level="a">Dynamic Liberation in Yogācāra Buddhism</title>
     </analytic>
     <monogr>
       <title level="j">Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies</title>
       <imprint>
          <biblScope type="vol">2(1)</biblScope>
          <biblScope type="pages">44-64</biblScope>
          <date>1979</date></imprint>
     </monogr>
  </biblStruct>

Example 4: An article that first appeared in a journal and was later published in a German language series:

<biblStruct>
  <analytic>
    <author>Thaller, Manfred</author>
    <title level="a">A Draft Proposal for a Standard for the
    Coding of Machine Readable Sources</title>
  </analytic>
  <monogr>
  <!-- In -->
    <title level="j">Historical Social Research</title>
    <imprint>
      <biblScope type="vol">40</biblScope>
      <date>October 1986</date>
      <biblScope type="pages">3-46</biblScope>
    </imprint>
  </monogr>
  <monogr>
  <!-- Rpt. in -->
    <title level="m">Modelling Historical Data: Towards a Standard for Encoding and
    Exchanging Machine-Readable Texts</title>
    <editor>Daniel I. Greenstein</editor>
    <imprint>
      <pubPlace>St. Katharinen</pubPlace>
      <publisher>Max-Planck-Institut für Geschichte In Kommission bei
      Scripta Mercaturae Verlag</publisher>
      <date>1991</date>
    </imprint>
  </monogr>
  <series lang="DEU">
    <title level="s">Halbgraue Reihe zur Historischen Fachinformatik</title>
    <respStmt>
      <resp>Herausgegeben von</resp>
        <name type="person">Manfred Thaller</name>
        <name type="org">Max-Planck-Institut f&uuml;r Geschichte</name>
    </respStmt>
    <title level="s">Serie A: Historische Quellenkunden</title>
    <biblScope>Band 11</biblScope>
   </series>
</biblStruct>

Example 5: An edited volume

<biblStruct id="Kawamura-1978">
  <monogr>
    <editor>Kawamura, Leslie</editor>
    <title level="m">The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhism</title>
     <imprint>
      <pubPlace>Canada</pubPlace>
      <publisher>Wilfred Laurier University Press</publisher>
      <date>1978</date>
    </imprint>
  </monogr>
 </biblStruct>

Example 6: An unpublished dissertation

  <biblStruct id="Anacker-1969">
    <monogr>
      <author>Anacker, Stefan</author>
      <title level="u">Vasubandhu: Three Aspects</title>
      <note>Ph.D dissertation</note>
      <imprint>
        <publisher>University of Wisconsin</publisher>
        <pubPlace>Madison</pubPlace>
        <date>1969</date>
      </imprint>
    </monogr>
  </biblStruct>


If you have any entries you can help us with, please just copy one of these samples to your computer, replace/revise as necessary, and send it on over. If you have a case that seems to lie outside of these five (there will be some) you might want to solve it by taking a look at the TEI site. If not, please write to me, and I'll be glad to help.

Charles Muller <acmuller[a]l.u-tokyo.ac.jp>